Irregular Verbs

A sortable list of irregular verbs with examples of their use

Regular verbs form the simple past tense and the past participle by adding -ed to the base form of the verb. Irregular verbs do not follow this pattern and so the forms of their past tense and past participle need to be learnt. Unfortunately, many of these verbs are very common; it helps to master these as soon as possible.

Here is a complete table of English irregular verbs for your reference.

You can sort this table by the Base Form (alphabetically), CEFRSee the glossary definition, and Frequency by clicking on those headings in the table, and you can use the search bar to find individual words. The CEFR levels range from A1 (the lowest level) to C2 (the highest level). Be aware that verbs can have many different meanings so the CEFR ranking given here is for the most common usage (the lowest level). Frequency means how often these words appear in text. This is based on the British National Corpus. "1" means the word appears in the most frequent 1000 words in English; "2" means the word appears in the second most frequent 1000 words, and so on.

You can see examples of the use of most of these verbs in authentic texts, and you can practise them by using the irregular verb exercise pageGo to the Irregular Verb Exercise page.

Base form Past Past participle CEFR   Frequency      
beExponential growth can start very slowly and be barely noticeable for quite some time. (source) wasFor example, as a young girl, she was fascinated with flying machines. (source) / wereA well-rounded thinker, she created solutions that were well ahead of her time. (source) beenHarmful chemicals have been a major cause of vulture population crashes across Europe, Africa and Asia. (source) A1 1 be was were been be
beginBig journeys begin with small steps. (source) beganEarth’s climate began to cool around 50 million years ago. (source) begunAnd new regulations have begun tackling this physical waste, including chargers and device repairs. (source) A1 1 begin began begun begin
buyOf course, any salesperson knows the power of personality when it comes to enticing shoppers to buy, but can chatbots charm in the same way? (source) bought It bought photo-sharing platform Ofoto in 2001 and could have developed it into a social media platform. (source) boughtOnline shopping has been found to give a dopamine boost, as it is released into our brains when we anticipate pleasure. So while we wait for our purchases to arrive, we tend to feel more excited than if we had bought things in store. (source) A1 1 buy bought buy
catchIf we do catch COVID again, will the immunity we’ve acquired from this infection reduce the severity of the next one? (source) caughtAnd long COVID can occur regardless of whether or not people were very sick when they caught the virus. (source) caughtThat said, some research is looking in particular at whether a genetic element helps explain why certain people have never caught COVID. (source) A1 1 catch caught catch
choosePeople choose some technologies for the way they contribute to meaning. (source) choseOne of these moments came in the 1970s when oil giant Exxon chose to ignore its own commissioned research on the impact of fossil fuels. (source) chosenGoing fully online would not benefit many students otherwise we wouldn’t have chosen the option to come to a traditional university. (source) A1 1 choose chose chosen choose
comeHow do creative geniuses come up with their ideas? (source) cameWith greater affluence  came greater mobility.  (source) comeWhat’s more, a record number of applications to university in 2022 have come from students from disadvantaged backgrounds. (source) A1 1 come came come
doAs Aristotle argued in The Nicomachean Ethics, one way to decide how we should act is to ask: “What sort of person would do that?” (source) didI actually did some research into whether sunshine does make us happier. (source) doneWhat can be done? (source) A1 1 do did done do
drawRather, it seems there was limited data available that followed people for long enough for the authors to be able to draw strong conclusions beyond this time frame. (source) drewIn her notes, which ended up twice as long as the original article, Lovelace drew on different areas of her education. (source) drawnWhat’s needed now is more high quality research that will allow firm conclusions to be drawn as to how much it improves our overall health. (source) A1 1 draw drew drawn draw
drinkThis could be because older children generally drink more soft drinks than younger children. (source) drankI watched Casablanca for the first time at the Seville, and drank hot apple juice spiced with cinnamon. (source) drunkThey haven’t eaten or drunk anything for a day or two. (source) A1 1 drink drank drunk drink
driveYou can tell a lot about someone from the car they drive. (source) droveAn unusual pattern of winds drove old Arctic sea ice into a precarious position in the winter of 2020. (source) drivenBoth because of the way they are driven and the mechanics inside them, electric vehicles could play an important role in making our roads safer. (source) A1 1 drive drove driven drive
eat We absorb it when we eat food and exhale it into the atmosphere. (source) ateWhen you run, the energy in your motion comes from the energy you got out of the food you ate. (source) eatenIn the U.S., 350 slices are eaten every second, while 40% of Americans eat pizza at least once a week. (source) A1 1 eat ate eaten eat
feelBut the robots we have today are just machines and feel nothing, so kicking them cannot be wrong because it hurts the robot. (source) feltBut a number of students felt the on-campus experience was preferable to online learning. (source) feltThese stories came out of a recent research project that I co-authored. We spoke to a total of 33 people in the UK, all of whom had felt “called” to music in early life but then abandoned it in favour of other work, only to return to their music later. (source) A1 1 feel felt feel
findBut humans also feel the urge to find meaning in life. (source) foundMany studies found an association, but others have not. foundBut globally, humanity has always found a way to avoid doom. (source) A1 1 find found find
flyThese insects, many of them pest species, fly north in spring every year to take advantage of the new growing season, and fly south in autumn to escape the cold. (source) flewSo what do moths do on migration? To our surprise, we found they flew along very straight paths, effectively making a bee-line for their destination. (source) flownNuclear fission rockets have never been flown in space, but they have been tested on the ground. (source) A1 1 fly flew flown fly
forgetWhile doing this you focus on the movements and your breathing and forget about the stresses of life. forgotWhile most control bees forgot the association of sent with sugar after 24 hours, when bees were on caffeine they remembered the association 24 hours later, and there was some memory left after 72 hours. (source) forgottenThe 1114 earthquake and its impacts were not quickly forgotten. (source) A1 1 forget forgot forgotten forget
getIt’s best to get a good night’s sleep if improving aerobic fitness is one of your goals. (source) gotWhen you run, the energy in your motion comes from the energy you got out of the food you ate. (source) gotAnd one respondent noted: “I think I’ve got the best manager going. (source), gotten"gotten" is a form of the past participle used almost exclusively in America. A1 1 get got gotten get
giveThese stereotypes may  give girls the sense that they don’t belong. (source) gaveWhen I asked who was responsible for managing stress in an organisation, many of the people I spoke to gave conflicting answers. (source) givenWe found that 96% of these secondary schools had a compulsory uniform. In our analysis of the school uniform policies, we found a variety of reasons being given to justify compulsory uniforms, with an emphasis on it being in pupils’ own interest. (source) A1 1 give gave given give
goto reduce the world’s digital carbon footprint, these efforts need to go beyond the physical to include the impact of data use on the environment as well. (source) wentThe siblings went on to make major discoveries, using their telescopes. (source) goneWe would write a song and just have to remember it. And there was always the risk that we’d just forget it. If the next morning you couldn’t remember it – it was gone. (source) A1 1 go went gone go
haveMany people have the intuition that “violence” towards robots is wrong. (source) hadThese vendors had more than US$140 million in revenue over an eight-month period. (source) hadBut the age of fossil fuels has had dramatic consequences. (source) A1 1 have had had have
hearWhen you hear someone talk, do you see the words in your mind’s eye? see the words in your mind’s eye heardWhen our ancestors walked on the African savanna over 100,000 years ago, fast recognition of what they heard or saw was essential. (source) heardYou may have  heard of the Mozart effect. (source) A1 1 hear heard heard hear
knowScientists now know simple one-on-one interactions can add up to more than the sum of their parts. (source) knew Aristarchus  knew the Sun was much bigger than the Earth or the Moon. (source) knownIn 2021, researchers found California condors can have been known to reproduce without mating. (source) A1 1 know knew known know
learnBut research is helping us learn more about the connections between our eyes and our mental state. (source) learntI also learnt a great deal about the urbanisation processes of two other major East African cities – Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia, and Kigali, the capital of Rwanda. (source), learned"learned" is the regular form of the past tense. learntBut here’s what I’ve learnt along the way. (source), learned"learned" is the regular form of the past participle. A1 1 learn learnt learned learn
makeThere isn’t enough data on people who cannot imagine their own voice in their heads to make a comparison. (source) madeMature female students were affected the most, with many noting that additional responsibilities, such as caring for children or disabled family members, made things more difficult. (source) madeA lot of claims have been made about the benefits of tai chi. (source) A1 1 make made make
meetMuscles store glucose from the foods we eat in the form of glycogen to meet the demands of exercise. (source) metDuring this time, babies met fewer new people and had fewer chances to socialise with other adults and babies. (source) metLovelace had met Babbage when she was introduced to London society. (source) A1 1 meet met meet
paySo use this valuable daylight – get away from your desk, take a walk, and pay attention to what’s around you. (source) paidOur data show that households experiencing higher flood risk paid 14% to 56% lower rents in Port Harcourt compared to other communities. (source) paidLess attention has been paid to the justice implications of electricity distribution. (source) A1 1 pay paid pay
putBut this can put your relationships under strain. (source) putAs the French writer Voltaire put it, the best is the enemy of the good. (source) putThis step involves getting more energy out from fusion reactions than is put in by a laser. (source) A1 1 put put
readPeople’s capacities to recall text they read is limited in the short term. (source) readFor example, a recent study recorded participants’ eye movements as they read texts and listened to irrelevant background speech. (source) readIf you have turned on a TV or read the news during the past few months, you have probably heard of the widespread fires that wrought havoc on the Amazon rainforest this year. (source) A1 1 read read
rideThe simple truth is that you have to learn how to ride, just as you must learn how to walk. Riding a bike is all in the mind. (source) rodeThe charge meant more people rode bikes into central London – that was the idea. (source) riddenIt was thought that no one has ever ridden the Wall of Death any faster than 45mph, but during the record attempt, experienced motorcyclist Guy Martin attempted to reach 80mph, a speed which would completely smash existing records. (source) A1 1 ride rode ridden ride
runBeing able to catch nutrients from decomposing leaf litter as they run down stems can thus be an advantage. (source) ranUsing data from our fieldwork, we ran model simulations to investigate how warming might affect the floating ice shelves. (source) runIt can only be run once a day. (source) A1 1 run ran run
sayHow we treat robots may say something about how we feel about the things that the robots represent. (source) saidEinstein said that matter bends space. (source) saidLanguage learning apps are very popular in app stores worldwide – and are said to be revolutionising language learning. (source) A1 1 say said say
seeWhen you hear someone talk, do you see the words in your mind’s eye? (source) sawThe next major shift for the internet saw it develop from a “read-only web” to where we are currently — a “read-write web.” (source) seenWe’ve seen many examples of this through the pandemic, including new uses of Zoom and social media to replace the workplace and face-to-face contact. (source) A1 1 see saw seen see
sendToy advertisements send signals that science and electronic toys are intended for boys rather than girls. (source) sentThe 16th-century King Ferdinand of Spain sent his subjects abroad with the command: “Get gold, humanely if possible, but at all hazards, get gold.” His statement rings true today. (source) sentEinstein didn’t like this because it seemed to imply that the information can be sent from one electron to the other instantaneously – breaking a rule that says nothing can travel faster than the speed of light. (source) A1 1 send sent send
showScientists already know of DNA mutations that can show where someone was from. (source) showed"showed" is the regular form of the past tense. shownHowever, as my research has shown, the ethics of kicking a robot dog are more complicated than might be expected. (source), showed"showed" is the regular form of the past participle. A1 1 show showed shown show
singEveryone can sing – however much we might protest – meaning it is one of the most accessible forms of music making, too. (source) sangSwitzerland and Spain were two countries that sang with low levels of passion. (source) sungIt’s better if it’s less wordy (and hip-hop, where the words are rapped rather than sung, is likely to be even more distracting). (source) A1 1 sing sang sung sing
sitFind somewhere peaceful to sit quietly, and focus on taking slow breaths. (source) satThey show that physical activity is still beneficial: inactive people who sat the most had double the risk of dying within three years than the active people who sat least. (source) satBy the end of primary school, many children have sat through countless maths classes feeling anxious and having no clue what is going on. (source) A1 1 sit sat sit
sleepWhat can you do for your circadian health? Get bright, blue light in the morning (preferably from the Sun), and use dim, longer wavelength light (more yellow and red like incandescent) in the evening. And sleep in the dark. (source) sleptWe slept in a different way than we do now. (source) sleptDistractions that would normally go unnoticed – such as the phone ringing in the office next door – can more easily disrupt your concentration when you’ve slept poorly. (source) A1 1 sleep slept sleep
speakIf you only speak to people who think the same way you do, you live in an echo chamber. (source) spokeCity officials in Aarhus spoke of the way green infrastructure planning should cut across divisions like engineering and housing departments, and across disciplines. (source) spokenA baby’s brain comes into the world prepared to learn any human language they hear spoken around them. (source) A1 1 speak spoke spoken speak
swimIf you are ever lucky enough to swim in a tropical seagrass meadow, take a close look at the leaves. (source) swamThe earliest humans swam. Neanderthals living in Italy about 100,000 years ago swam confidently. (source) swumI’ve swum in a freshwater lagoon near Acapulco in Mexico, with the guide reassuring us there were no crocodiles in the water that day. I’ve swum in a busy London indoor pool noisy with swimmers thrashing about and in Australia’s only women’s pool. (source) A1 1 swim swam swum swim
takeDrivers who take breaks are safer than those who do not. (source) tookThe voyage  took several years.  (source) takenThese last vultures were captured and taken into captivity. (source) A1 1 take took taken take
teachIt may also help to provide plenty of repetition and revisiting, teach short and frequent sessions, and make sure learners know what they should do if they get stuck, such as ask an adult for help. (source) taughtTogether, the Herschels taught themselves to make their own telescopes. (source) taughtSailors don’t normally use the stars to navigate any more, but they are still taught how to, in case their navigation systems break down. (source) A1 1 teach taught teach
tellWe then asked buyers to tell sellers what they thought was the fair market value of the property and make an initial offer. (source) toldWe told children about two activities they could try. (source) told One participant told the researchers how after a few days of hearing a bird singing in his garden, he started seeing a written word in his mind that represented the bird’s song. (source) A1 1 tell told tell
thinkThink twice before downloading new apps and only install programs that are digitally verified by a trusted company. (source) thoughtThese fossils may be much more common than we previously thought. (source) thoughtIt’s thought that the brain stores memories in a reconstructive, associative way. (source) A1 1 think thought think
understandTo better understand Web3, it helps to step back and see how the internet developed into what it is now. (source) understoodAncient Greek and Roman civilisations understood dreams to be both the messengers and messages. (source) understoodThe scale of microfibre pollution from laundry is poorly understood. (source) A1 1 understand understood understand
wakeWhile there is no evidence that we dream more when we are stressed, research shows we are more likely to remember our dreams because our sleep is poorer and we tend to wake in the night more frequently. (source) wokeImagine if you woke up one day and found yourself unexpectedly surrounded by presents and then a few days later you woke up to find chocolate eggs all over your room. (source), waked"waked" is the regular form of the past tense but is archaic. wokenThere are also false awakenings, where you believe you have woken up only to discover that you are in fact dreaming. (source), waked"waked" is the regular form of the past participle but is archaic. A1 1 wake woke waked woken wake
wearBy making everyone wear the same clothes, people cannot tell which gang you belong to, or which football team you support. (source) woreBy the Edo period (1603-1868), everyone wore a unisex garment known as a kosode, made from straight pieces of fabric sewn together like today’s kimono. (source) wornUniform requirements may cover what is worn to and from school as well as what is worn in the classroom, and also for physical education. (source) A1 1 wear wore worn wear
work worked, wrought"wrought" is archaic. (more) worked, wrought"wrought" is archaic but used as an adjective (wrought iron). (more) A1 1 work worked wrought work
writeWhile understanding and speaking a language comes naturally, though, learning to read and write is a different story. (source) wroteLast year, I wrote about people who had yet to be infected. (source) writtenThe Beatles may have written dozens of songs that were never released because he and John Lennon would forget the songs the following morning. A1 1 write wrote written write
becomeAnother quality of pizza that makes it so delicious: Its ingredients become brown while cooking in the oven. (source) becamePeople became mass participants in generating content through hosted services like Wikipedia, Blogger, Flickr and Tumblr. (source) become“Plastic” has  become a somewhat misguided way to describe polymers. (source) A2 1 become became become
breakSailors don’t normally use the stars to navigate any more, but they are still taught how to, in case their navigation systems break down. (source) brokeThe big market reaction against Alphabet was more because the launch debacle broke the proverbial camel’s back. (source) brokenHowever, as the 2019 example shows, laws can be broken. (source) A2 1 break broke broken break
bringThe fact a private company recently announced plans to try to bring back the dodo shows how important it is that international gene-editing laws keep up with the ambitions of corporations. (source) broughtThey added that older adults brought life lessons, skills, experience, wisdom, time, and often economic wealth to address the climate crisis. (source) broughtThe spontaneous nature of thoughts and memories brought up through the default mode network is what supports imagination and creativity. (source) A2 1 bring brought bring
buildSleep is also important if you’re looking to build strength or muscle. (source) builtDue to this variation, we built a tool called the Cooling Efforts Index. (source) built As with any new skill, this needs to be built up incrementally. (source) A2 1 build built build
costIn the US between 1960 and 2020, biological invasions were estimated to cost approximately US$1.22 trillion (£1.02 trillion). (source) costThere is a national minimum clothing grant in Scotland of £150 per year for eligible pupils in secondary schools, but The Children’s Society estimated that uniform cost £337 a year in 2020. (source) costThat means that whereas it might have cost $80 to fill up a Toyota Corolla at the start of the year, it now costs one third as much again – $109. (source) A2 1 cost cost
cut Cas9 is an enzyme that acts like a pair of scissors that can cut DNA. (source) cutDecades before the types of cutwork we’re seeing today, beat writer William S. Burroughs and his friend Brion Guysin wielded pairs of scissors, cut up Shakespeare’s texts and rearranged them into verbal collages alongside cuts from other writers. (source) cutWhat has been cut out can be discarded on the cutting-room floor or it can be made the centerpiece of something new. (source) A2 1 cut cut
dreamAlthough science knows what dreams are, it is still not known exactly why we dream , although plenty of theories exist. (source) dreamtInterestingly though the study found that those depressed volunteers who dreamt of their ex-spouse were more likely to have recovered from their depression a year later compared to those that did not dream of the ex-spouse. (source), dreamed"dreamed" is the regular form of the past tense. In British English "dreamt" is more common. dreamt, dreamed"dreamed" is the regular form of the past participle. In British English "dreamt" is more common. A2 1 dream dreamt dreamed dream
fallA hot shower or bath before bed can also be beneficial as the drop in body temperature afterwards can help you to fall asleep quicker. (source) fellIn 2021, around 10.6 million people worldwide fell ill with tuberculosis (TB) and 1.6 million people died from the disease. (source) fallenMany young people feel that they have fallen behind in their studies. (source) A2 1 fall fell fallen fall
growEvery species, if left unchecked, would grow exponentially. (source) grewHouseplants with more moisture in the air grew bigger and lost less water from their leaves during photosynthesis. (source) grownHuman population has grown exponentially, and individual societies have approached collapse multiple times over the past 8,000 years. (source) A2 1 grow grew grown grow
hitIf you hit a drum in one location the whole surface vibrates and the note that the drum sounds depends upon how tight the drum skin is. (source) hitMany people think that disaster hit on her maiden voyage, sailing out of Portsmouth Harbour into the Solent. (source) hitOne of the cities that has been hit hardest by the 2023 quake is Antakya in southern Turkey. (source) A2 1 hit hit
holdEye movements may also hold clues about someone’s emotional state. (source) heldWe also interviewed city officials and held workshops with officials and consultants. (source) heldThere also tends to be a lack of coordinated planning across institutions and regions where the same species is held. (source) A2 1 hold held hold
hurtWe can expect these latest increases to hurt far more than those in earlier years when real wages were rising. (source) hurtBut stability collapsed in no small part thanks to a plummet in global commodity prices in 2011, which hurt Brazilian exports. (source) hurtWe asked 30 participants to imagine that an individual close to them had hurt them in some way. (source) A2 1 hurt hurt
keepA firewall will block specific data or ports to keep you safe. (source) kept During the 1770s William worked as a choir master while his sister kept his house. (source) keptSo we shouldn’t be surprised that our laws have not kept pace with the extraordinary rise of facial recognition technology. (source) A2 1 keep kept keep
leaveWhere does this leave humanity now? (source) leftAs humans left Africa to colonise new lands, large animals disappeared everywhere we set foot. (source) leftHowever, regulatory failure has left our community vulnerable to harmful uses of facial recognition. (source) A2 1 leave left left leave
letWhen a cell divides the strands split up, and a new copy is made of each one. Let’s look at how this is done. (source) letWith the old way of life no longer viable, humans would have been forced to innovate, increasingly focusing on gathering, then cultivating plants to survive. This let human populations expand. (source) letIf I found out you were guessing about the rain but luckily got it right, I would still feel my trust had been let down because your “guarantee” was empty. (source) A2 1 let let
lieBut what is dark energy? The solution, it seems, might lie with another cosmic mystery: black holes. (source) layCaptain Robert Falcon Scott lay cold, frostbitten and dehydrated in a tent in Antarctica. Knowing death was near, he lay in his frigid sleeping bag and scrawled final messages to his friends, loved ones, and supporters. (source) lainThe volcano had lain dormant for more than 400 years before a few minor eruptions three years ago. (source) A2 1 lie lay lain lie
loseSome stroke survivors lose their inner speech but can still speak out loud, while others lost overt speech to a stroke, while their inner speech remained intact. (source) lostSome stroke survivors lose their inner speech but can still speak out loud, while others lost overt speech to a stroke, while their inner speech remained intact. (source) lostRather than worrying about what we have lost, perhaps we need to focus on what we have gained. (source) A2 1 lose lost lose
meanWe can only speculate on what this might mean in the longer term. (source) meantChina’s dominance reduced everyone’s costs. But it also meant that, as industrial jobs were lost in developed countries, they were not replaced by equivalents in the new energy sectors. (source) meantTo understand whether school uniform works or is beneficial, we have to consider what uniforms are meant to achieve. (source) A2 1 mean meant mean
mistakeThis explains why we can’t recognise that we’re in a dream and often mistake these bizarre narratives for reality. (source) mistookDugongs are interesting for many reasons. The name of the Order Sirenia to which they belong indicates that early sailors mistook them for “sirens” or mermaids, as illustrated in the legend of Odysseus. (source) mistakenOr they may surface with some strands of seaweed covering their heads, appearing like long – albeit green – hair. These characteristics may have led to these animals being mistaken for mermaids. (source) A2 1 mistake mistook mistaken mistake
ring2016 has seen teachers’ unions ring serious alarm bells about the state of teacher recruitment, retention and morale. (source) rangWhen ChatGPT first came out late last year, alarm bells rang for the search giant. (source) rungWhen the bell was rung to open trading on the morning of October 14, 1980, dealers dived into a feeding frenzy for shares in the newly floated Genentech. (source) A2 1 ring rang rung ring
sellCosmetics brands often use cutting-edge technology to sell their wares. (source) soldToledo Museum of Art in Ohio sold ancient Egyptian artefacts from its founding collection in Winter 2016 through Christie’s, despite an outcry from the Egyptian authorities. (source) soldOil drilling was hidden in plain sight.Typically, surplus public land is  sold on the open market to the highest bidder.  (source) A2 1 sell sold sell
shutThe higher courts have since acted swiftly to shut down this argument. (source) shutWhen schools shut down in March 2020, many of the nation’s roughly 7 million students in special education didn’t get the special education services to which they were entitled under federal law. (source) shutIt has shut down promising businesses, such as gaming platform Stadia and automated reservations tool Duplex on the Web. (source) A2 1 shut shut
spendEngineers spend much of their time absorbed in the technical aspects of problems, whether they’re designing the next generation of smartphones or building a subway. (source) spentHe spent hours decoding the primitive writing system, which may pre-date equivalent record-keeping systems by at least 10,000 years, before he approached a team of academics. (source) spentAs an engineering professor, I have spent the past six years trying to figure out how to educate the next generation of engineers to avoid these mistakes. (source) A2 1 spend spent spend
standGorillas, meanwhile, are “knuckle-walkers” and we used to think they were unable to stand fully upright. (source) stoodFour Insulate Britain activists recently stood trial at Inner London crown court on a public nuisance charge for blocking a busy London junction in October 2021. (source) stoodVancouver, Canada, has stood in for New York and other major US cities on screen, while Croatia has doubled the size of its tourism industry following the success of Game of Thrones, where parts of the series were shot. (source) A2 1 stand stood stand
stealOn the other hand, there are worries that ChatGPT and its competitors could steal many people’s jobs, especially in traditional white collar professions, though it’s very difficult to say at this stage how many people will be affected. (source) stolen response, he stole funds and a car from the home, and joined the army in 1941, at the age of 19. (source) stolenIt is common to hear news reports about large data breaches, but what happens once your personal data is stolen? (source) A2 1 steal stole stolen steal
throwClasses 51-58 are for wheelchair racers or field athletes who throw from a seated position. (source) threwAboriginal Tasmanians threw very long and thin wooden spears to hunt kangaroo from as far as 30 to 50 metres. (source) thrownThe chemical recycling capability ensures that waste plastic has a value attached to it so it is less likely to be thrown away. (source) A2 1 throw threw thrown throw
winIf you buy a ticket for the lottery, the chances of winning the big prize are about 45 million to one. You might therefore be justified in regarding that as evidence that you are unlikely to win, and not buy a ticket as a result. (source) wonIf you wanted to pick out the musician who won a prestigious classical music competition would you listen to a clip of them playing or watch a silent video of them performing the same piece of music? (source) wonThe former has won national and international critical acclaim, while both of the latter can reach massive audiences via Netflix. (source) A2 1 win won win
beat beatLead pollution beat Amundsen and Scott to the South Pole by 20 years. (source) beatenThe stakes were high, with financing of future explorations hanging in the balance of which team would be first to reach the South Pole. But in a sense human impact, if not humans themselves, had beaten both of them to it. (source) B1 1 beat beaten beat
blowThis energy in the vacuum also makes the universe grow bigger with time, like when you blow up a balloon. (source) blewThis dust blew out over the ocean, where it was deposited on the Tasman Sea, aided by rainfall. (source) blownSea ice moves around the Arctic Ocean as it gets blown by the wind. (source) B1 1 blow blew blown blow
burnBut if you are able to squeeze your workouts in mid-morning, it may potentially help you to burn more fat. (source) burntThe Black Summer bushfires of 2019-20 were cataclysmic: a landmark in Australia’s environmental history. They burnt more than 10 million hectares, mostly forests in southeast Australia. (source), burned"burned" is the regular form of the past tense. burntIt’s commonly thought that food that has been burnt could cause cancer. (source), burned"burned" is the regular form of the past participle. "Burnt" is more common as an adjective than "burned" and is more common in British English. B1 1 burn burnt burned burn
digHowever, we should note our study was conducted during the wetter months, when soils are typically easier to dig. (source) dugOver a period of three weeks, we dug through what we believe to be around 20,000 years of human history. (source) dugFor example, one of the bluestones never quite made it to Stonehenge and was dug out in 1801 from the top layer of a Neolithic burial mound called Boles Barrow, near Warminster, also in Wiltshire. (source) B1 1 dig dug dig
feedTo be successful, there need to be people at home to feed, bathe, medicate and comfort the patient. (source) fedTo compare soil roots with aerial roots, we then fed the heavy nitrogen solution to individual roots and measured the amount of heavy nitrogen that was taken up by each. (source) fedHow the virus spread to mink is not clear, but it is known that farmed mink are often fed raw poultry. (source) B1 1 feed fed feed
fightAnimals fight for access to key resources such as mates, territories and food. (source) foughtThe Comanche Indians fought to the death to preserve their hunting lifestyle. (source) foughtThe next battles against tobacco must be fought in the world’s major cities. (source) B1 1 fight fought fight
freezeDuring winter, the biggest danger for the pond life that becomes trapped in ice is internal freezing, as expanding ice wreaks havoc on cells and tissues. Hibernating pond invertebrates such as beetles, dragonfly larvae and waterboatmen (a type of aquatic bug) get around this problem by allowing internal fluids to freeze. (source) frozeFor instance, my Cessna encountered problems when the primary airspeed sensor, called a “pitot tube,” froze in cold air. (source) frozenPermafrost is difficult to define. Officially, it’s soil that has been frozen for two years or more, with an “active layer” that thaws seasonally. (source) B1 1 freeze froze frozen freeze
hang hungPerhaps it hung from a branch above and used its feet to steer by gripping branches below, rather than bearing weight through the feet. (source), hanged"hanged" is the regular form of the past tense. However, it is rarer and has a more sinister meaning, referring to death by hanging. hungAlternatively, it could have hung from its feet, using the legs to manoeuvre and the hands to grasp. (source), hanged"hanged" is the regular form of the past participle. However, it is rarer and has a more sinister meaning, referring to death by hanging. B1 1 hang hung hanged hang
hideThis offers a niche habitat for insects to hide in and breed, meaning there are probably more insects per foraging patch in these areas than elsewhere on the island. (source) hidIf you are out hiding Easter eggs for the kids Easter egg hunt, maybe you should have a good cup of espresso first, so you can remember where you hid them the next morning. (source) hiddenOil drilling was hidden in plain sight. (source) B1 1 hide hid hidden hide
layMany native spiders lay only one to three egg sacks a year. (source) laidIn this remarkable treatise, Aristarchus laid out the earliest known attempted calculations of the relative sizes and distances to the Sun and Moon. (source) laidWhen asked to remember something about a party, one person might describe vividly their sixth birthday: how the gifts were laid out, the sweet, chocolatey taste of the hedgehog cake and going to bed really late. (source) B1 1 lay laid lay
leadFinally, this work may lead to new connections between the study of heat (thermodynamics) and the study of communication (information theory). (source) ledLater on, social media platforms like Facebook, YouTube, Twitter and Instagram and the growth of mobile apps led to unparalleled connectivity, albeit through distinct platforms. (source) ledThe study is the work of 17 astronomers in nine countries and was led by the University of Hawaii. (source) B1 1 lead led lead
light litWhat caused the fireballs that lit up the sky over Australia? (source), lighted"lighted" is the regular form of the past tense. litOutdoor environments are relentlessly lit, and more and more people use computer tablets and smart phones at all hours. (source), lighted"lighted" is the regular form of the past participle. It is also used as an adjective. B1 1 light lit lighted light
rebuildPower suffered a number of impact injuries in his accident, he broke his cheekbones, top jaw and nose and fractured his skull. Several months later, doctors printed a symmetrical model of his face using CT scans and were then able to create implants and plates to rebuild his features. (source) rebuiltUntil now it was thought that these were evidence of reuse just within Stonehenge which was first built around 2900BC and rebuilt circa 2500BC (at this point, large local sandstones known as “sarsen” were erected). (source) rebuiltThe district was rebuilt between 1863 and 1880, by local builders who returned after the clash. (source) B1 1 rebuild rebuilt rebuild
riseAt the same time, Microsoft saw its shares rise 3% on announcing that it would be integrating ChatGPT into Bing, Office and Teams. (source) rose Developed countries’ emissions fell sharply, even with economic growth. Green technologies – from wind and solar to electric vehicles – fell in cost and improved in performance as demand for them rose. (source) risenOver the period of our study the sea globally has risen by around 20cm. (source) B1 1 rise rose risen rise
setTo accomplish such feats, false widows set silk strings loaded like springs attached to surfaces. (source) setA new study published in The Lancet set out to answer these questions, looking at the strength and duration of natural immunity by COVID variant. (source) setWhere return to the wild is a challenge, we must redouble efforts to find and mitigate threats in native habitat, or explore whether populations can be set up in new areas. (source) B1 1 set set
shakeThe traditional handshake plays a central role in our daily lives. We shake hands with people we know and those who are new to us. (source) shookAccording to the Damascene administrator Ibn al-Qalānisī, who lived and worked in the city, the quake shook the earth and terrified the people. (source) shakenEuropean politics has been seriously shaken up by this month’s parliamentary election. (source) B1 1 shake shook shaken shake
shootBut Hollywood investors often shoot the scenes and leave. (source) shotI shot the sheriff But I didn't shoot the deputy (Bob Marley) shotVancouver, Canada, has stood in for New York and other major US cities on screen, while Croatia has doubled the size of its tourism industry following the success of Game of Thrones, where parts of the series were shot. (source) B1 1 shoot shot shoot
smellIf the water doesn’t look or smell right, trust your instinct. (source) smeltIn one study, researchers gave pregnant women garlic or sugar capsules. A panel of volunteers then smelt samples of the fluid, and correctly picked out the garlic-eating mothers. (source), smelled"smelled" is the regular form of the past tense. "smelt" is more common in British English. smeltPartly it seems to be due to the caramel-like mesifuran and furaneol but also to large amounts of methyl and ethyl esters, with a molecule called methyl butyrate especially significant, as well as methyl anthranilate (you may have smelt it in grapes). (source), smelled"smelled" is the regular form of the past participle. "smelt" is more common in British English. B1 1 smell smelt smelled smell
stickThe mucus from the snail’s foot helps it move along smoothly, and also helps the snail to stick to whatever surface it is on. (source) stuck stuckEye movements may also hold clues about someone’s emotional state.Tracking eye movements can also help people learn by monitoring where someone is stuck in a task.  (source) B1 1 stick stuck stick
strikeWhen headaches strike, many people’s reaction is to reach for a painkiller. (source) struckWalter, chancellor of Antioch in the first half of the 12th century, recorded how the quake struck in the dead of night. (source) struckIt was struck by another deadly tremor just over 900 years ago, in the early hours of November 29 1114 CE, or 508 AH in the Islamic calendar. (source), stricken"stricken" is an irregular form of the past participle, sometimes used as an adjective, especially in journalese. (more) B1 1 strike struck stricken strike
tearOur most exciting finding was in the people who had quit smoking. It brings to mind a friend and Stasi agent, who in 1988 told me that East Germany could tear down the wall and the East German people would stay. (source) toreBecause of a lack of water, the boys did not clean the wound but tore an old shirt to use as a bandage. (source) tornSome stars just get unlucky. There are billions of stars within a typical galaxy. Yet once every 100,000 years or so, one of those stars will wander too close to the supermassive black hole lurking at the galaxy’s centre and be torn apart. (source) B1 1 tear tore torn tear
bearThese targets reflect how developing countries are more dependent on coal and have less money to invest in the green transition, but bear less historical responsibility for causing climate change. (source) boreIt’s possible that there were many unsuccessful precursors that bore little resemblance to present-day life. (source) bornBut children who are born last often receive preferential treatment. (source) B2 1 bear bore born bear
dealFuture vehicle engineers and researchers have plenty to deal with. (source) dealtBut Lomu dealt with his difficulties and his achievements in much the same way, to paraphrase Kipling, by treating those two impostors just the same: with humility and courage. (source) dealtIt has dealt with disease, wildfire, and grazing before and remains the world’s largest scientifically documented organism. (source) B2 1 deal dealt deal
misunderstandPeople misunderstand the nature and significance of quantitative scientific evidence. (source) misunderstoodIt’s possible the reason people misunderstood what was required to win the Clay Institute’s prize is how many layers removed the prize requirements is from solving chess puzzles. (source) misunderstoodGiven its huge success in describing the natural world for the past 150 years, the theory of evolution is remarkably misunderstood. (source) B2 1 misunderstand misunderstood misunderstand
rewriteGene editing can literally rewrite DNA. (source) rewroteNewton’s mathematical description of gravity reigned for 250 years, but a century ago Einstein’s insights into the nature of space and time rewrote our gravitational understanding. (source) rewrittenIn 1681, King Lear was rewritten by the dramatist Nahum Tate with a revised, happy ending in which both Cordelia and her father live. (source) B2 1 rewrite rewrote rewritten rewrite
undoIt is all very well promoting women into the boardroom, but failing to support them when they are there is equally damaging. Arguably it undoes all of the good work, resources and effort to transition women into the boardroom in the first place. (source) undid undoneThe cardinalfish has survived for 50 million years, but its most successful survival strategy could be undone by rapid global warming. (source) B2 1 undo undid undone undo
windThere is a very real chance Tsuchinshan-ATLAS might, like comet Kohoutek, be approaching the inner Solar System for the first time. We’re not yet sure – but if it is, it might also wind up being less spectacular than predicted. (source) woundOutbreaks wound down based on factors like “changes in temperature, humidity and the availability of hosts, vectors and a sufficient number of susceptible individuals,” Varlik wrote. “Some societies recovered relatively quickly from their losses caused by the Black Death. Others never did.” (source) woundThe Australian car manufacturing industry will be gradually wound down over the next 12 months as GM Holden and Toyota follow suit and close their local car-making operations. (source) B2 1 wind wound wound wind
betAustralians love to gamble. It’s often said that if they could, they would bet on two flies crawling up a wall. (source) bet, betted betIn our most recent paper, in a sample of 1,813 regular sports bettors, we found 667 (36.8%) had bet on micro events in the past 12 months. (source), betted C1 1 bet betted bet
misleadTo moths, streetlights might look like the Moon, which could mislead them. (source) misledThe House of Commons Committee of Privileges is investigating whether Johnson misled parliament over the partygate allegations (and therefore was in contempt of parliament). (source) misledIt’s also not uncommon for us to be misled into believing that how something looks isn’t as important as it really is (here’s an example: judging wine by the labels rather than the taste). (source) C1 1 mislead misled mislead
spring sprangBut are there still volcanoes forming on Mars? Where are the youngest ones, the volcanoes that sprang into life most recently? (source) sprungNot to be outdone, Chinese web giant Baidu has also sprung into action. (source) C2 2 spring sprang sprung spring
redoWhen students do not demonstrate mastery on an assignment or a test, allow them to redo the assignment. (source) redid redoneCertain ideas and activities can be redone and adapted to different contexts, even if less time is available. (source) 1 redo redid redone redo
remakeIn troubled times, we are collectively searching for ways to unmake and remake the world around us. Art is one way to unlock that capacity. (source) remade remadeWhen cars arrived in cities in the early 20th century, pedestrians were persuaded or bullied out of the way and infrastructures were remade to suit the new technology. (source) 1 remake remade remake
rerunIn a famous thought experiment, biologist Stephen Jay Gould asked what might happen if we were to rewind the “tape of life” and rerun it. (source) reranWhen they reran the study with normal dietary levels of nitrite, only a minimal amount of NDMA was created. (source) rerun 1 rerun reran rerun
retellWe should find ways to retell all aspects of these buildings’ stories. (source) retold retoldThese all too human tales have been retold to different audiences in different ways repeatedly over the years. (source) 1 retell retold retell
ridAnyone carrying excess weight should do whatever it takes to rid themselves of it gradually. They should start as soon as possible – while their body is still likely to be amenable to weight loss. (source) rid, ridded"ridded" is the regular form of the past tense but its use is extremely rare. ridThey have rid themselves of delusion and are brutally honest with themselves, know when to take risks and when to play it safe. Leaders are courageous, defy group-think and accept the backlash against their unorthodox practices. (source), ridded"ridded" is the regular form of the past participle but its use is extremely rare. 1 rid ridded rid
lendAnd teachers can lend a hand by setting aside time for reading in school – though they would have to select difficult books, of course. (source) lentGreater Manchester’s Housing Investment Fund initially lent out £167 million to six high-profile developments. (source) lentWhat’s more, the number of books lent by public libraries fell by 20% to 247m over the same period, mainly due to a decrease in the number of borrowers – by 18.3% to 9.8m. (source) A2 2 lend lent lend
sinkSkulls, the ship’s figurehead and other artefacts from the wreck of a 1545 Tudor warship have been made available to peruse online in 3D reconstructions. But why did she sink? (source) sankThe Mary Rose sank at the front of an English fleet of about 80 ships which were doggedly defending England from a French invasion. (source) sunkDespite recent waves of Big Tech layoffs, billions of dollars have been sunk into virtual reality (VR) hardware and software over the past few years. (source), sunken"sunken" is almost exclusively used as an adjective. (more) A2 2 sink sank sunk sunken sink
spellThey use the context in which a sound like “f” occurs when deciding how to spell it, favouring f in some environments and ff in others. (source) spelt, spelled"spelled" is the regular form of the past tense. speltThese were men and women who would do the sums, check the sums and then check them again, since even the smallest error could have spelt disaster,” Schaffer said. (source), spelled"spelled" is the regular form of the past participle. A2 2 spell spelt spelled spell
upsetShow that you care about their feelings and that you don’t want to upset them. (source) upsetThis information (like what people feared and what upset them) was used to spread misinformation and manipulate their voting decisions on important elections. (source) upsetSnowflakes and trigger warnings: Shakespearean violence has always upset people. (source) A2 2 upset upset
biteFor one thing, the legislated breeds don’t bite more often or more severely than other dogs. (source) bitAlthough it lived so soon after the dinosaurs bit the dust, Kimbetopsalis was a totally new breed of mammal. (source) bittenThose who have been bitten by noble false widows can testify to how painful a bite can be, sometimes requiring medical attention. (source) B1 2 bite bit bitten bite
bleedLarge numbers of small blood vessels lie just under a thin layer of skin, as a heat exchange mechanism for air going to the lungs. A blow to the face may lead to a nose bleed, with or without a fractured nose. (source) bledIn bush medicine the sandpaper fig leaves were used in conjunction with stinking passion flower to relieve insect bites. The rough texture of the leaves would be used to rub the skin until it bled, and then the passion flower would be applied. (source) bledThe film segment just before the graveside scene shows a service honoring the Americans of all backgrounds who had bled and died together. (source) B1 2 bleed bled bleed
diveAnd then you go under water and you have to go a little bit deeper, but when you dive you sort of pass this zone, where all of a sudden these amazing underwater forests appear. (source) dived, doveSo, the first kelp forest that I dove on in the Arctic was about one to two meters tall. (source) dived B1 2 dive dived dove dive
forgiveBut according to recent psychological research, the better we are at controlling our thoughts and behaviour and not retaliating, the easier it is to forgive. (source) forgave“He wasn’t the only animal to bite me when I worked in zoos,” Jess says, “but he was the cutest and I instantly forgave him.” (source) forgivenWe trained them to forget these incidents, and found this was easier where the incident had previously been forgiven than if it had either not been forgiven or they had not been given instructions on whether to forgive it. (source) B1 2 forgive forgave forgiven forgive
knitHand knitting remained popular in the 20th century, in part due to mass efforts to knit garments, including jumpers and socks, for soldiers fighting in both world wars. (source) knittedJust a few months ago, people around the world knitted thousands of pouches for animals injured in Australia’s devastating bushfires. (source), knitThe two irregular forms, "knit", for the past tense and past participle are rare. knitted"knitted" is the regular form of the past participle., knitAsimov’s Empire comprised 25 million planets, knit together by sleek spaceships hurtling through the galaxy. (source) B1 2 knit knitted knit
proveWith our microscope studies, we had good evidence that the structures were 3D biophotonic crystals, but to prove it required structural diagnoses and optical modelling. (source) proved proved, provenStudies have actually proven that buses which run at short intervals often cluster in threes. (source) B1 2 prove proved proven prove
quitFor developing world to quit coal, rich countries must eliminate oil and gas faster. (source) quitted, quitRecent research from The Economist shows fear of new aggressions pushed nine out of ten female victims surveyed to alter their digital habits – 7% even quit their jobs. (source) quitted, quitOur most exciting finding was in the people who had quit smoking. (source) B1 2 quit quitted quit
sew sewed sewnBy the Edo period (1603-1868), everyone wore a unisex garment known as a kosode, made from straight pieces of fabric sewn together like today’s kimono. (source), sewed"sewed" is the regular form of the past participle. B1 2 sew sewed sewn sew
shave shaved shaved, shavenIrregular form used almost exclusively as an adjective (e.g. clean-shaven) (more) B1 2 shave shaved clean-shaven shave
shineAt night, light scattered by the same air particles causes the sky to shine down on us. (source) shoneThe pandemic has also shone a spotlight on the benefits of gossip. (source) shoneBut the recent studies on gulls – and a number of other waterfowl species – have shone a light on their previously undiscovered skills. (source) B1 2 shine shone shine
spoilGood food is also wasted when it is simply thrown away before or after it spoils. (source) spoilt, spoiled"spoiled" is the regular form of the past tense. spoiltLoss happens when food is spilt in transit or spoilt from heavy bruising or wilting. (source), spoiled"spoiled" is the regular form of the past participle. B1 2 spoil spoilt spoiled spoil
bendWeaver ants (of the genus Oecophylla) line up in teams to form “pulling chains”, acting as living winches to bend leaves together when building their treetop nests. (source) bent bentThe mechanics at play when fish fins are bent far from their normal positions are still a bit of a mystery. (source) B2 2 bend bent bend
breedThis offers a niche habitat for insects to hide in and breed, meaning there are probably more insects per foraging patch in these areas than elsewhere on the island. (source) bredThese standards reflect the values and desires of those who bred them and are particularly evident in three exhibits at the museum. (source) bredThe pandemic has bred a new dependence on online technologies for work and social engagement. (source) B2 2 breed bred breed
burstWe then applied an accepted method that is used to detect and date stamp bubbles after they burst. (source) burstBut I also think the old guy has done a good job and should not be leant upon like somIt has been 20 years to the day since bushfires burst out of the Brindabella Ranges and into the suburbs of our nation’s bush capital.e deity, some final authority, the other 354 days a year. (source) burstNot long ago, these companies were untouchable, but the most recent tech bubble seems to have burst. (source) B2 2 burst burst
dare dared, durst"durst" is the only irregular form and is archaic dared B2 2 dare dared durst dare
lean leantAt one point, we were sitting down together when he leant his head against my shoulder. (source), leaned"leaned" is the regular form of the past tense. leantBut I also think the old guy has done a good job and should not be leant upon like some deity, some final authority, the other 354 days a year. (source), leaned"leaned" is the regular form of the past participle. B2 2 lean leant leaned lean
meltAmazon fires are causing glaciers in the Andes to melt even faster. (source) melted melted"melted" is the regular form of the past participle. "molten" is normally used as an adjective. (more), moltenJust after the Earth formed from collisions in a huge cloud of material that also formed the Sun, it was molten. (source) B2 2 melt melted molten melt
slideImagine the wall was wet and slippery – you’d slide right down. (source) slidThe biggest mountains on Earth, the Himalayas, are geologically young – about 50 million years old – but rocks made in a much older ocean slid over each other to help create them. (source) slidThey had already slid in the first millions of years after they formed, and then after a long dormancy they slid again to help the rise of the Himalayas. They may slide again in the distant future. (source) B2 2 slide slid slide
splitThis could involve rounding the figure up or down to a number that is easy to split by the number of people at your table. (source) splitWe split 222 students into buyers and sellers. (source) splitSome atomic nuclei are unstable and can be split into several smaller nuclei when bombarded with neutrons. (source) B2 2 split split split
swearTaking an oath expresses a specific intention to others, using words like “I promise to” or “I swear that.” The intention when taking an oath is not limited to the moment someone articulates the words of the oath. (source) sworeThe most solemn military oath – directly invoking the Roman gods – was the “sacramentum.” By this oath, soldiers swore allegiance to their specific general or commanding consul and, later, to the emperor. Disobedience could earn severe punishments. (source) swornJustices might be impeached by Congress for failing in “good behavior.” But in practice, justices serve for life, until death or retirement, and are bound in good conscience to carry out their “duties” as they have sworn to do. (source) B2 2 swear swore sworn swear
sweepOur new research shows that powerful currents sweep these microplastics along the seafloor into large “drifts”, which concentrate them in astounding quantities. (source) sweptOn December 7, flash flooding swept through the streets of Lisbon, the capital of Portugal, after 82.3mm of rain fell in 24 hours. (source) sweptIt is the magpie’s misfortune to have been swept up in the culture wars around birds of prey. (source) B2 2 sweep swept sweep
swingResonance can happen in any system that swings or oscillates if you force it at its natural period. For example, if you give a child on a swing a small push at the right time, they will swing higher and higher, because you are forcing them at the natural period of the swing. (source) swungOver the past decade, an average of 5% of the country’s electricity has been imported, helping to reduce the amount it needed to generate itself. However, net imports swung to net exports in 2022 for the first time in 44 years. (source) swungBy the end of the Jurassic (145 million years ago), however, the pendulum had swung. Dinosaurs ruled the Earth, mammals evolved, tectonic activity increased and Pangea (the last super-continent) ripped apart. (source) B2 2 swing swung swing
seekUnlike antibodies, T cells don’t seek out viruses. (source) soughtIn our study, we sought to answer the question of whether wearable robots – like powered lower-limb exoskeletons or prostheses – can improve balance above and beyond a normal baseline. (source) soughtAs there is an interdependency between innovation and investment, a solution must be sought that allows fund managers to assess risk and allocate financial resources in order to fuel innovation that, in turn, increases wealth generation. (source) B2 2 seek sought seek
spreadPlants use seeds to spread their young and make new plants. (source) spreadHow the virus spread to mink is not clear, but it is known that farmed mink are often fed raw poultry. (source) spreadDespite the speed with which this spider has spread, it has yet to be officially recognised as an invasive species. (source) B2 2 spread spread spread
shedIn recent years, many studies have tried to shed light on the appropriate technology approach. (source) shedFor a few billion years, nothing changed, until the more massive of the stars reached the end of its life. It swelled to become a red giant then shed its outer layers, leaving behind a white dwarf, too dim for us to detect. (source) shedThis means that any nasty germs that stick to the mucus are shed before they can reach the snail’s skin underneath. (source) C1 2 shed shed
spinFor example an electron, like a coin, can spin in two directions (up and down). (source) spunThese swirling winds spun the floating icepack like a spinning top. (source) spunA game he created in only three days, intended to be played for a few minutes of fun, had spun off into something he could not handle. (source) C1 2 spin spun spin
bindThese proteins bind to nerve endings and disrupt the messages they send, causing muscles and organs to miss signals from the brain which can lead to paralysis and death. (source) boundIndeed, this shared experience shaped the landscape of London and bound the city together. (source) boundA galaxy is a massive collection of gas, dust and billions of stars all bound together by the force of gravity. (source) C2 2 bind bound bind
leap leaptYet the success rate for those who made the most of this opportunity to use the material world to boost their thinking leapt to a 75% success rate. (source), leaped"leaped" is the regular form of the past tense. leaptHowever, despite these rebranding efforts, the use of ad-blocking software has leapt by 70% in two years. (source), leaped"leaped" is the regular form of the past participle. C2 2 leap leapt leaped leap
cast castTranquo exhibits his sperm whale alongside “whatever rare things the more ingenious of his people could invent”, including “chiselled shells, inlaid spears, costly paddles”, and the “natural wonders” cast on his shores: in other words, in a museum. (source) castEratosthenes’ famous and yet simple method relied on measuring the different lengths of shadows cast by poles stuck vertically into the ground, at midday on the summer solstice, at different latitudes. (source) C2 2 cast cast
creep creptSome military details crept into blouse design through shoulder epaulettes and patch pockets. (source) creptAlthough, on average, people’s weight had crept back up, some weight loss – about 2kg, on average – was sustained for up to five years. (source) C2 2 creep crept creep
unbend unbent unbent 2 unbend unbent unbend
unbindThe patterns of DNA strands – the pegs – light up when fluorescently labeled DNA bind to them. Because the fluorescent strands are short, they rapidly bind and unbind. (source) unbound unboundIn fact having imitated the very best enterprise approaches and unbound by legislative requirements, they have become innovative and agile businesses. (source) 2 unbind unbound unbind
awake awokeBefore dawn on August 29, Tavurvur – a stratovolcano on the island of New Britain, in Papua New Guinea’s eastern archipelago – awoke spectacularly after almost a decade dormancy. (source) awokenBumblebee queens are a common sight on a spring day, their large furry bodies flying industriously from flower to flower. At this point they will have just awoken from a long hibernation – the much smaller worker bees die off each year, leaving the new queens to survive winter alone. (source) 2 awake awoke awoken awake
bless blessed, blest"blest" is archaic. blessed, blest"blest" is archaic. 2 bless blessed blest bless
misspellIf spellers relied only on such context-free links between phonemes and letters, they would misspell many sounds, including the “f” of staff and the “o” of wand. (source) misspeltThe only work by a woman was Ewa Pachucka’s Landscape and Bodies. The catalogue misspelt her name. (source) misspeltGrowing up in the 1970s, seeing Indigenous people on the television was rare. I remember the first time I saw Dalaithngu in the film Walkabout (1971). The storyline was indicative of the era, and Dalaithngu’s name was misspelt in the credits. (source) 2 misspell misspelt misspell
speedThat energy is transferred to the moon, causing it to speed up in its orbit, and therefore gradually swing away from Earth. (source) spedHe took a minute to collect himself, then sped down the runway to jump 18.16m, breaking his own world record by 18 centimetres. (source), speeded"speeded" is the regular form of the past tense. spedBut the hold up has also been about technology. Innovation in the field, and particularly in metal 3D printing, has really sped up in recent years. (source), speeded"speeded" is the regular form of the past participle. 2 speed sped speed
string strungHalf an hour later – 90 minutes after landing – I stood in front of a hundred strangers and strung sentences together. They clapped at the end. (source) strungCarefully hammered into thin sheets before being rolled into tubes, the nine beads – which are over 5000 years old - were originally strung into a necklace together with other exotic minerals such as gold and gemstones. (source) 2 string strung string
spillOnce the rivers no longer flowed through confined valleys, they were able to spill over to one side or another toward the lowest ground. (source) spiltThe recent review into the Deepwater Horizon oil rig fire in 2010 which killed eleven offshore workers and spilt nearly five million barrels of oil into the Gulf of Mexico conjures an overpowering sense of déjà vu. (source), spilled spiltLoss happens when food is spilt in transit or spoilt from heavy bruising or wilting. (source), spilled B1 3 spill spilt spilled spill
broadcast broadcastUK prime minister Ramsay MacDonald’s concluding address from St James’s Palace was filmed and broadcast in cinemas worldwide, as was the positive reaction of Indian delegates. (source), broadcasted"broadcasted" is the regular form of the past tense, although the irregular form is more common. broadcastIt’s been 60 years since the first TV ad was broadcast in the UK. (source), broadcasted"broadcasted" is the regular form of the past participle, although the irregular form is more common. B2 3 broadcast broadcasted broadcast
overcomeSeveral species are documented to self-assemble into functional structures to overcome challenges in their habitats. (source) overcameHe chooses to be a well-to-do man of letters who overcame his humble origins and succeeded in a cosmopolitan society, even though he was not a native speaker or a native citizen. (source) overcomeThe mobile phone changed all this and allowed us to move around as we talked but it also created a significant technical problem that needed to be overcome. (source) B2 3 overcome overcame overcome
ariseThis abnormal fear of being mocked may arise from negative early life experiences of being teased, mocked or laughed at. (source) aroseThe idea of the celebration arose in 1993 as part of the activities of the Stanford Humanist Community, then headed by biologist Robert Stephens. (source) arisenThis seems to have arisen quite fortuitously in 18th-century Europe, as an accidental cross between two imports into France, Fragaria chiloensis from the western side of America and Fragaria virginiana, from the eastern side of America. (source) C1 3 arise arose arisen arise
fleeWhen an animal detects a predator, they share this information with other group members directly, by producing a warning, or inadvertently, by preparing to flee. (source) fledPeople also fled from family problems, societal ostracism, extreme discrimination and exploitation, as well as from poverty caused by unemployment or the loss of livelihood. (source) fledAlthough the city remains relatively safe compared to other parts of Syria, many have fled, lives and livelihoods have been lost and treasured cultural heritage has been destroyed. (source) C1 3 flee fled flee
withdrawThey need to exit the scene and withdraw from the political process. (source) withdrewThe next day, Grünenthal withdrew all medicines containing thalidomide from the German market. Five days later, on December 2, Distillers withdrew Distaval, as well as four other drugs that contained thalidomide from the UK market. (source) withdrawnThe Channel programme will not protect young people from becoming drawn into terrorist violence but by failing to respect the desire for justice, it runs the risk of alienating them further. The programme should be withdrawn. (source) C1 3 withdraw withdrew withdrawn withdraw
bidUnder the current system, the various train operating companies bid to run each rail franchise. (source) badeWe recently bade farewell to the Cassini spacecraft, which after 13 years of faithfully orbiting Saturn and its moons was directed to plunge into the giant planet’s atmosphere., bid biddenIntelligent, inquisitive, and quite often irreverent, the young woman waited until she was bidden to enter. (source) C2 3 bid bade bidden bid
blendIncreasingly, oil companies disguised their activities with approaches such as operating inside buildings, building tall walls and designing islands off Long Beach and other sites to blend in with the landscape. (source) blended, blent"blent" is archaic. blended, blent"blent" is archaic. 3 blend blended blent blend
forecastThe identification of these hot spots will be key to improving how we forecast the weather in the northern hemisphere and understand how the retreat of Arctic sea ice impacts on it. (source) forecastExxon scientists accurately forecast climate change back in the 1970s – what if we had listened to them and acted then?, forecasted"forecasted" is the regular form of the past tense, although the irregular form is more common. forecast, forecasted"forecasted" is the regular form of the past participle, although the irregular form is more common. 3 forecast forecasted forecast
weaveShe reflects on the power of abstraction, how the machine might “weave algebraical patterns”, how it might work with quantities other than number and its potential for creativity. (source) woveWe collectively wove contemporary inspired items such as bags and vases, but we also wove more traditional items such as snakes, baskets, and shading hats. (source) wovenHow tightly the yarn is twisted and whether the fabric was knitted or woven both influence microfibre release. (source) 3 weave wove woven weave
swell swelled swollen"swollen" is mainly used as an adjective (more), swelled"swelled" is the regular form of the past participle, although the irregular form is more common and is also used as an adjective. 3 swell swelled swollen swell
undergoThis is the question posed by Schrödinger’s thought experiment in which a cat is placed in a sealed box with a flask of poison and a single radioactive atom, which will undergo decay at a random time. (source) underwentThe same set of participants underwent the iced water test on a separate occasion, but this time they repeated a neutral, non-swear word. (source) undergoneGossip has undergone a slow rehabilitation since I first began researching and writing about it over 25 years ago. (source) 3 undergo underwent undergone undergo
undertakeIn future, advanced algorithms may be able to take the place of some of the monitoring that doctors would undertake. (source) undertookLast summer, Nikita Zimov undertook a perilous journey by truck to transport 12 baby bison all the way from Denmark. (source) undertakenIntravenous antibiotic therapy for serious infections, such as cellulitis (an infection in the deeper layers of the skin), was previously always undertaken in hospital but can often now be done – at least in part – at home. (source) 3 undertake undertook undertaken undertake
forbidDuring a lab meeting, one of our PhD researchers recalls how her father would forbid her from using paper to help solve maths homework problems by writing them down. (source) forbadeThis new law forbade children under the age of eight from working the land, after the 1860s witnessed a rise in public concern over the exploitative nature of “ganging”. (source), forbad forbiddenBut the editor-in-chief of Science, one of the top scientific journals in the world, has gone a step further and forbidden any use of text from the program in submitted papers. (source) B2 4 forbid forbade forbad forbidden forbid
kneel kneltOn the ground to the west of the temple there knelt a eight-foot Garuda, the man-bird vehicle of Vishnu, created in 1689 from a single piece of stone. (source) knelt B2 4 kneel knelt kneel
repayUnder current loan repayment schedules only about 20% of students are expected to fully repay their student loan. (source) repaidTo his surprise, the women used the money productively in their modest commercial enterprises and repaid the loan with thanks. (source) repaidBut at some point the costs of doubtful debt, which is that money that the government expects will never be repaid, may be too large not to directly address. (source) B2 4 repay repaid repay
shrink shrank, shrunkThat revolution continued with the launch of Apple’s iPhone – an interface that shrunk computers and the web into the palm of our hand. (source) shrunkThe brain scans also showed that his hippocampus – a part of the brain involved in memory – had shrunk. (source), shrunken"shrunken" is almost exclusively used as an adjective. (more) B2 4 shrink shrank shrunk shrunken shrink
dwellPopular perceptions of Sylvia Plath tend to dwell on a deeply troubled version of the young poet due to her well-documented difficulties with depression and the morbid imagery found in some of her poetry. (source) dweltAlthough researchers are not entirely certain where Proto-Indo-European speakers came from, it seems likely they dwelt in the Pontic-Caspian steppe, after which they radiated out across the rest of the continent, taking with them both their crops and their ways of speaking. (source) dwelt C1 4 dwell dwelt dwelt dwell
foreseeIt’s now possible to predict how likely an endangered species is to go extinct, with mathematical models acting as windows into the future. These models help scientists foresee how a population is likely to react to changes in the environment and therefore how likely it is to die out. (source) foresawShe has become a controversial figure, generating both wild enthusiasm and, in turn, a backlash of hostility, to extravagant claims that she foresaw quantum mechanics, invented the CD, or brought about Silicon Valley. (source) foreseenThis idea of adaptable advertising was foreseen around 100 years ago by advertising luminaries such as Daniel Starch and Claude Hopkins. (source) C1 4 foresee foresaw foreseen foresee
thriveBuilding a wind power operation that can thrive in icy conditions requires a keen understanding of the underlying physics. (source) throve"throve" is archaic., thrived"thrived" is the regular form of the past tense. thiven"thriven" is archaic., thrived"thrived" is the regular form of the past participle. C1 4 thrive throve thrived thiven thrive
clingThe first day of school is a momentous event in the life of a child. For many it is a day filled with pride and excitement. For others it is more stressful; they may cling to their parents, unused to being parted for so long. (source) clungNew Orleans’ lifeblood – its citizens – was pushed out by floodwaters, as its poorest residents clung to the city’s sliver of high ground or rooftops that protruded from the dark, polluted waters. (source) clungFloating rocks can also act as ferries for exotic invading species, such as shellfish and other organisms that make them their floating home. Indeed, it has been speculated that pumice islands like these were the first home that early life on Earth could have clung to and sprung from. (source) C2 4 cling clung cling
spit spat spatThe blood from an anterior bleed will predominantly flow out of the nostrils, while with a posterior bleed, much of the blood will end up in the throat to be spat up or swallowed. (source) C2 4 spit spat spit
weepOrpheus charms the rulers of the underworld and their attendant Furies with his passionate song. They weep tears for his loss, and allow him to take Eurydice back into the sunlight. (source) weptBut there’s just something magical about seeing music surrounded by other people. Some fans reported being so moved by their first live shows in nearly two years that they wept with joy. (source) weptOne reflected on how they “have laid awake at night thinking about all the biodiversity loss [and] climate change and wept” and another said they felt “so sad for the animals” in the face of bushfires or urban sprawl. (source) C2 4 weep wept weep
flingWe also experience G-forces when we go around a curve. This “centrifugal force” is what flings you from side to side on fairground rides. (source) flung flungUnder these conditions, blood drains away from your brain and eyes, much as water is flung out of clothes during the spin cycle of a washing machine. (source) 4 fling flung fling
grindContrary to our expectation, we discovered that to make consistently tasty brews, the barista should use less coffee and grind the coffee marginally coarser. (source) ground groundTo make espresso, hot water is forced through a finely-ground bed of coffee. The barista makes decisions about how much coffee and water to use, and how finely the coffee is ground. (source) 4 grind ground grind
oversee oversawShe oversaw the building of Chatsworth Hall from about 1550 onwards, and later built not one, but two, grand houses at Hardwick. (source) overseenThis should be enacted through legislation, overseen by the regulator, and monitored by independent research. (source) 4 oversee oversaw overseen oversee
sawThe film recounts the true story of mountaineer Aron Ralston who had to saw off his own arm after it became trapped when a boulder fell on it. (source) sawed sawnOn average, logs suitable to be sawn into timber make up only an average 35% of total logs cut from Victorian native forests. (source), sawed"sawed" is the regular form of the past participle. "sawn" is also used as an adjective - "sawn timber". (more) 4 saw sawed sawn saw
shoeThere are however many possible origins of the lucky horseshoe. One English folkloric tale tells of Saint Dunstan, a blacksmith who when asked to shoe the devil’s horse nailed a horseshoe to the Devil’s hoof instead. (source) shod shod 4 shoe shod shoe
stingHover wasps live in very small societies of around five to ten individuals. They don’t chase you and they can barely sting. (source) stungWe first flew to New Zealand, to be kitted out with extreme weather clothing. Then onwards for a stopover at McMurdo Station on Ross Island before heading out to the South Pole. The −50 centigrade air stung my eyes and lungs as I got off the plane. (source) stungIf you have ever been stung by a bee, you will know that the sting hurts almost immediately, and the pain rapidly reaches its peak. (source) 4 sting stung sting
stride strodeTwo hundred thousand years ago our species evolved in sub-Saharan Africa and by around 60,000 years ago strode out to settle Asia, Australia, Europe and eventually the Americas, replacing the Neanderthals as we set up home. (source) stridden 4 stride strode stridden stride
thrust thrustEdward VIII’s unexpected abdication thrust his shy, stammering younger brother Albert onto the throne as King George VI. (source) thrustThey discovered that the shape and size of the bone damage correlates with a conical spear point, and the angle of the lesion on the deer pelvis is consistent with a spear being thrust into a deer in an upright position. (source) 4 thrust thrust
sowCompared to conventional methods where farmers use a range of equipment to till, harrow, sow and firm in the seed, the amount of soil disturbed during no-till farming is very small. (source) sowed sownThis dry spell followed one of the wettest autumns and winters in living memory, which significantly reduced the area of autumn-sown cereal crops, which happen to be much higher yielding than those sown in the spring. (source), sowed"sowed" is the regular form of the past participle. C1 5 E sow sowed sown sow
striveAnd they could strive to become more accessible by providing role models within firms or avoiding jargon in communication with young potential employees. (source) stroveInstead, painters like Claude Monet strove for a new way of representing the world in order to keep it alive and real. (source) strivenThis hybrid acquired the characteristics of fruit that was both large and red, and over the centuries breeders have striven to produce strawberries with these characteristics, as well as others including long shelf-life and freedom from disease. (source) C2 5 strive strove striven strive
treadTread softly because you tread on my dreams. (W.B. Yeats) trodThe fossil tracksites we study provide a census of which creatures trod on the area’s ancient dunes and beaches. (source) troddenAnd, as my research shows, once a criminal pathway is trodden, it is incredibly difficult to find a way out. (source), trodIn Nepal, the forest paths used by people during the day are trod by tigers at night, in a discovery that is promising for the ability of humans and tigers to coexist. (source) 5 tread trod trodden, trod tread
cleave clove, cleft clovenAlmost exclusively used as an adjective: cloven-hoofed animals. (more), cleft 5 cleave clove cleft cloven cleave
heave heaved"heaved" is the regular form of the past tense., hove"hove" is a nautical term. (more) heaved"heaved" is the regular form of the past participle., hove 5 heave heaved hove heave
overrideLaughter does have the power to override other emotions momentarily – we cannot sob morosely or simmer with anger while simultaneously laughing. (source) overrodeFor instance, one study showed that the combination of saltiness and fattiness overrode the satiating effects of salt and fat, regardless of sensitivity, so everyone needed the same amount to feel full. (source) overriddenThe illusion shows how multi-sensory perception can influence how we see our own body. It also reveals how what we know to be true can be overridden by the brain. (source) 5 override overrode overridden override
overthrow overthrewThere were no tanks in the streets, as had been the case with the previous coups in the country in 1960, 1971 and 1980, but it nevertheless successfully overthrew the government of the time. (source) overthrownThis means that the Department of Education’s new policy goes much further than any British government during the cold war, when communist movements around the world had successfully overthrown capitalist regimes. (source) 5 overthrow overthrew overthrown overthrow
relay relaid relaid 5 relay relaid relay
stink stank, stunk stunk 5 stink stank stunk stink
withhold withheldSome parents helped children to be included in talks about their care, but other parents answered questions on their behalf, told them to stay quiet and withheld information from them. (source) withheldA blind test is when information that can influence the experimenters is withheld until the experiment is complete. (source) 5 withhold withheld withhold
overtakeMicrosoft may see this as an opportunity for its search engine, Bing, to overtake Google. (source) overtookFrom the 1850s, when taxes on newspapers were abolished, local papers overtook London papers in sales and readership. (source) overtakenThe amount of aquaculture produce worldwide - including farmed fish and shellfish - has now overtaken global beef production, by 64m tonnes to 57m tonnes. (source) B2 6 overtake overtook overtaken overtake
overhear overheardI overheard a mother last week congratulating her son in the street on his obviously excellent A Level results (source) overheardA signal that can travel through the air, meanwhile, can go directly to the branches closest to the attack. A consequence of these volatile signals, however, is that they can be “overheard” by any plants the chemicals reach. (source) C2 6 overhear overheard overhear
withstandThis species can withstand a wide range of climates and remains active during the winter when many spiders native to Ireland and Britain slow down. (source) withstoodWhat we found was that those who swore withstood the pain of the ice-cold water for longer, rated it as less painful, and showed a greater increase in heart rate when compared to those who repeated a neutral word. (source) withstoodFor thousands of years, philosophers have debated how to answer ethical questions, large and small. There are a few approaches that have withstood the test of time. (source) C2 6 withstand withstood withstand
abideIndeed, there is some debate around whether the oath remains relevant to practising doctors, particularly as it is the law, rather than a set of ancient Greek principles, by which they must ultimately abide. (source) abode"abode" is archaic and normally used only as a noun, as in "right of abode"., abided"abided" is the regular form of the past tense. "abided" is more common than "abode" but still rare. abode"abode" is archaic and normally used only as a noun, as in "right of abode"., abided"abided" is the regular form of the past participle. "abided" is more common than "abode" but still rare. 6 abide abode abided abide
beholdAs a PhD candidate studying turtle doves, I’ve had the privilege of working with these beautiful birds in their natural habitat. I saw thousands of turtle doves leaving one prominent winter roosting site in Senegal – an amazing sight to behold, considering their rarity back in the UK. (source) beheld"beheld" is somewhat archaic. beheld"beheld" is somewhat archaic. 6 behold beheld behold
clothe clothed"clothed" is the regular form of the past tense., clad clothed"clothed" is the regular form of the past participle., cladBut as Japan is preparing to double its defence budget, raising questions over its pacifist identity since the post-war period, and China is flexing its muscles in Hong Kong and Taiwan, there should be more for officials to worry about than a woman clad in a kimono. (source) 6 clothe clothed clad clothe
crow crowed, crew crowed 6 crow crowed crew crow
mow mowedRemoving the grass clippings after you’ve mowed the lawn also reduces the fertility in your lawn, preventing it from becoming dominated by one or two competitive turf species. (source) mownRather than paving, decking and neatly mown lawns, gardeners need to be planting flowers, shrubs and bushes that are good for pollinators. (source), mowed"mowed" is the regular form of the past participle. "mown" is also correct and is also used as an adjective (fresh mown grass) (more). "mow" and "mowed" are regular forms. 6 mow mowed mown mow
shear sheared sheared, shornUsing such names and images in the UK, shorn of all historic context, ensures that the use of American Indian branding becomes more pointedly associated with the stereotypical attributes that the teams seek to exploit: bravery, savagery, ruggedness and the “warrior spirit”. (source) 6 shear sheared shorn shear
slay slew slain But while the real-life Komodo dragon, a monitor lizard that exceeds 2 metres in length, is impressive, it differs dramatically from the creatures of legend such as the one supposedly slain by St George. (source) 6 slay slew slain slay
slingTo understand why we only see that one side, we need to explore the relationship between the moon and Earth, and the forces that will slowly, but inexorably, sling the moon from our orbit into space. (source) slung slungDo not wear a mask slung under your chin, or have your nose protruding over the top. (source) 6 sling slung sling
slitHe enforced this rule in April 1769 during their first sojourn in Tahiti, when the ship’s butcher threatened to slit the throat of the high chief Te Pau’s wife when she refused to exchange her hatchet for a nail. (source) slit slit 6 slit slit
bereave bereaved"bereaved" is the regular form of the past tense., bereft bereaved"bereaved" is the regular form of the past participle., bereft"bereft" is mainly found in the phrase "bereft of" meaning "completely lacking". 7 bereave bereaved bereft bereave
gild gilded"gilded" is the regular form of the past tense., gilt gilded"gilded" is the regular form of the past participle., gilt 7 gild gilded gilt gilded gild
overhang overhung overhung 7 overhang overhung overhang
overlay overlaidWe then overlaid these forecasts with habitat maps for almost 20,000 species of amphibians, birds and mammals, and observations of whether each species can exist in agricultural land. (source) overlaidSecond, he found that cheetahs can successfully hunt in all terrains, not just open fields. The run data were overlaid on Google Earth to visualise the landscape the cheetahs were operating in. (source) 7 overlay overlaid overlay
overrun overran overrunBut this comparison is laughable, and the fear that London is set to be overrun by empty crystalline towers is entirely misplaced. (source) 7 overrun overran overrun
strew strewed strewnTo find a submarine in the Baltic Sea is a challenge, as this area of relatively shallow waters is strewn with lots of small islands. (source), strewed"strewed" is the regular form of the past participle. 7 strew strewed strewn strew
wring wrungIn 1981, a high profile New York Times opinion piece loudly proclaimed that our morning cup was driving us to an early grave. The writers wrung their hands as they swore off coffee and faced the grey reality of their post-coffee world. (source) wrung 7 wring wrung wring
overdoBeing active is beneficial for our bodies and mental health. But sometimes we can overdo it, resulting in sprains, strains, or pulled muscles. (source) overdid overdone 8 overdo overdid overdone overdo
beset beset besetThe valley’s cultural heritage was a source of great pride for a nation that has long been beset by political and economic problems, and now by a humanitarian crisis. (source) 8 beset beset beset
hamstring hamstrung hamstrungIn attempting to deal with the haze, Indonesia’s central government is hamstrung by the country’s decentralised set-up and opposition from local governmental elites and “regents”, known as “bupatis”, which are interested in preventing enforcement of anti-haze laws (source) 8 hamstring hamstrung hamstring
resetAre we approaching inevitable collapse from climate change of our own making, or can we transition again and discover innovations that reset the cycle? (source) reset reset 8 reset reset
stave staved"staved" is the regular form of the past tense., stove staved"staved" is the regular form of the past participle., stove 8 stave staved stove stave
befall befell befallenBut with no validated sightings in the 28 years since, many feared that an epidemic of snare hunting in the region had pushed the species, also known as the Vietnam mouse deer, to the brink of extinction – a fate that has befallen numerous others in the country. (source) 9 befall befell befallen befall
chide chided"chided" is the regular form of the past tense., chid chided"chided" is the regular form of the past participle., chidden 9 chide chided chid chidden chide
forsake forsookOther Pintupi families remained on their land with little or no contact with Europeans well into the 1960s. Eventually they too forsook their country and were transported, by truck, to the new government settlement. (source) forsakenAnd over the last decade, government investment in infrastructure has forsaken artists and artistic creation for management. (source) 9 forsake forsook forsaken forsake
inlay inlaid inlaidThe Taj was constructed of translucent white marble, brought to Agra from the north-west Indian region of Rajasthan. It was then inlaid with semiprecious stones, including jasper, jade, turquoise, lapis lazuli, sapphire and carnelian. (source) 9 inlay inlaid inlay
outgrow Like many other parents, my first emotion was denial. When I finally accepted that he was now one of the estimated 1.6 million kids in the U.S. who have peanut allergy, I hoped he would just outgrow it. (source) outgrewThis technology won’t be confined to specialist university departments, just as the original internet soon outgrew its origins as a way to connect academics around the world. (source) outgrownWe’ve simply “outgrown” nature, Ellis argues, and so we have to become more comfortable within the “used and crowded planet” we’ve made. (source) 9 outgrow outgrew outgrown outgrow
partakeSharing out work more evenly across the available population by reducing average working time would enable those who work too much to work less and those who do not work at all to partake in some work. (source) partookIndividuals who partook in this practice improve their ability to understand a new accented talker as compared to listeners who did not. (source) partaken 9 partake partook partaken partake
slinkWild Asian elephants slink quietly away at a tiger’s growl, but trumpet before retreating from a leopard’s. (source) slunkEventually, the successes of the new way of doing natural philosophy were too overwhelming to ignore. The Aristotelians slunk off to find other occupations. (source) slunk 9 slink slunk slunk slink
begetArguing that human capital is cumulative rather than fixed, Heckman and colleagues proposed a formula summed up in the phrase “skills beget skills and abilities beget abilities”. (source) begot, begatThis begat the audio cassette, which begat piracy, which begat Napster, which begat iTunes, the iPod and Spotify. (source) begotttenGuided by neither logical objectives nor agreed-upon rationale, propelled by its own momentum, and encountering little resistance, acceleration seems to have begotten more acceleration, for the sake of acceleration. (source) 10 beget begot begat begotten beget
outdoThe aim is to find new and different ways to outdo the opposition, to overcome unnecessary obstacles, to meet the test on offer. (source) outdidThe only groups that outdid only children in both intelligence and academic achievement were firstborns and people who had just one younger sibling. (source) outdoneLuckily computer algorithms are still able to make the most of the individuality of the human voice. They have probably already outdone humans in some cases – and they will keep on improving. (source) 10 outdo outdid outdone outdo
overcast overcast overcastEven if it’s completely overcast, there are plenty of other chances to see the moon as it gradually moves past its full phase over the next few nights so don’t be disheartened. (source) 10 overcast overcast
recastIn the century and half since his death, writers from the southern hemisphere have continued to recast Dickens’s fictions in new forms. (source) recast recastThe project was then recast as an animation in which people could speak openly and anonymously and so we took on another co-researcher, Xue Han, an animation student. (source) 10 recast recast
smiteFor most of human history, people have been terrified by lightning. Frightening bolts from above, lightning was a tool of the gods to smite mortals for their hubris (or their unfortunate penchant for seeking shelter from storms under trees). (source) smote smittenGrace too was smitten, and in 2002 she decided to forgo her high school senior year to be with Alex. One year later, Grace gave birth to their first child. (source) 10 smite smote smitten smite
foretellCan children’s dreams foretell events that will happen nearly 40 years into the future? (source) foretold foretoldReal-world technology is often foretold by science fiction. In 1927, characters in the film Metropolis made video calls to each other. (source) 11 foretell foretold foretell
outrunCombine calorific restriction with physical activity for more successful weight loss and remember: you cannot outrun a bad diet. (source) outranEmus were undeterred by the employment of the Australian military armed with machine guns to reduce their numbers. They outran and outmanoeuvred all military attempts to control them in pastoral land. (source) outrunThe growth of new brain cells in the hippocampus and the enhancement of spatial memory that is brought on by endurance running is basically an evolutionary safety net for when you have outrun your knowledge, when you have run so far that you no longer know where you are and you need to learn, fast. (source) 11 outrun outran outrun
overbear overbore overborne 11 overbear overbore overborne overbear
overlie overlay overlainThe fact that many coalfields are overlain by urban centres means that there is certainly good potential for many former mining areas. (source) 11 overlie overlay overlain overlie
beseechFilled with grief at his imminent departure, the townspeople gather and beseech him to give them words of wisdom to ease their sorrow (source) besought besought 12 beseech besought beseech
forbear forbore forborne 12 forbear forbore forborne forbear
outshineQuasars – objects at the hearts of distant galaxies powered by black holes – are supremely bright. They can readily outshine the rest of their host galaxy combined. (source) outshoneLarger impacts do, however, continue to occur – as illustrated on February 15, 2013, in the Russian city of Chelyabinsk. On that day, with no warning, a small near-Earth asteroid detonated in the atmosphere, and outshone the noon-day sun. (source) outshone 12 outshine outshone outshine
overshootUnless urgent action is taken, emissions are expected to cause the planet to continue heating rapidly over the next few decades, prompting the global average temperature to overshoot the Paris agreement’s target, which aimed to limit warming to between 1.5°C and 2°C. (source) overshot overshotThe net zero by 2050 target may seem far away, but accounting for embodied carbon means acknowledging that countries may have already overshot it. (source) 12 overshoot overshot overshoot
rive rived rivenThe 21st century appears to be one riven by shocks - whether terrorist, financial or climatic. In the aftermath, institutions, people, and societies more generally are frequently encouraged to be more resilient. (source), rived 12 rive rived riven rive
gird girded"girded" is the regular form of the past tense., girt girded"girded" is the regular form of the past participle., girtIn a land that is girt by sea, and blessed by a rich coastal vegetation, Australia is in one of the best positions to capitilise on its blue carbon resources, particularly its seagrasses. (source) 13 gird girded girt girded gird
hew hewed"hewed" is the regular form of the past tense. hewed"hewed" is the regular form of the past participle., hewnThese were simple, often one room buildings, built on minimal stone foundations and made from local timber hewn to shape. (source) 13 hew hewed hewn hew
waylayOver these days, cities turn into playful battlegrounds. Children emerge armed from their houses and bands of revelers gather on the sides of the roads ready to waylay passersby. This, though, is a war with water. (source) waylaid waylaidThe application of scientific discoveries to challenging healthcare problems is even more complex and even more likely to be waylaid by political needs, special interests and incompetence. (source) 13 waylay waylaid waylay
outbidSulfuric acid prices would rise, stoking competition in which more profitable green technology industries are likely to outbid fertiliser producers. (source) outbid outbid, outbidden 14 outbid outbidden outbid
rend rent rentBut speaking and drawing from the black site of Manus, Eaten Fish has rent the veil of secrecy to portray the violence and abuse that have been consistently denied and dismissed by the Australian government and its operatives. (source) 14 rend rent rend
forswear forswore forswornWhile Australia is a highly militarised middle power in the region, it has few, if any, discernible nuclear threats of its own to counter. It has forsworn such weapons through international law agreements and has at times been a strong voice on efforts to eliminate nuclear weapons. (source) 15 forswear forswore forsworn forswear
mislay mislaid mislaidChildren’s insatiable curiosity and search for new knowledge is getting lost somewhere along the way. Where have we mislaid the art of the question? (source) 15 mislay mislaid mislay
gainsay gainsaid gainsaid 16 gainsay gainsaid gainsay
betake betook betaken 21 betake betook betaken betake
shrive shrove, shrived"shrived" is the regular form of the past tense. shriven, shrived"shrived" is the regular form of the past participle. 21 shrive shrove shrived shriven shrive
bethink bethought bethought Rare bethink bethought bethink
foreknow foreknew foreknown Rare foreknow foreknew foreknown foreknow
lade laded ladenIn the middle ages, stars were laden with meaning and, with no light pollution in the sky, often easier to see with the naked eye than they are now. (source) Rare lade laded laden lade
bestrew bestrew bestrewn Rare bestrew bestrew bestrewn bestrew
underlieWhy is it when we set a New Year’s resolution our behaviour doesn’t change, or it only changes for a limited time? There is a common obstacle that could underlie the failure of changing behaviour: resistance or more particularly inertia. (source) underlayThe natural phenomena that underlay the volcano’s birth and the chain of events that it has set off have forever altered the undersea landscape and the island itself, and will continue to do so for millennia. (source) underlainThis crust is underlain by deep solid “roots” – like the keel of an iceberg – made of mantle which has become highly chemically depleted through intense melting over time. (source) Rare underlie underlay underlain underlie
undercutBut Russia has something that may undercut that solidarity: a network of European countries, Germany in particular, dependent on it for energy exports, especially natural gas. (source) undercut undercutThe massive growth of online video, on-demand streaming services, and peer-to-peer file sharing has undercut a broadcast business model that has long tied media buyers and advertisers to particular programming genres. (source) Rare undercut undercut undercut
typecast typecast typecastThis is acknowledged in the many talented actors who are often typecast in comedies. (source) Rare typecast typecast typecast
subletThe court’s decision involved a tenant who offered the premises to guests on Airbnb. The court decided the tenant had breached the terms of the lease by subletting the premises. The tenant was evicted, as tenants cannot sublet without the landlord’s consent under tenancy law. (source) sublet subletYou rent an Airbnb apartment only to find out that the apartment has been sublet in violation of the lease. You are evicted. (source) Rare sublet sublet sublet
spotlightAs a constitutional law professor and former Justice Department litigator, I see the court’s reasoning as suggesting deep skepticism of Trump’s position and, at the same time, spotlighting the main issues for the further appeals that will inevitably follow. (source) spotlighted, spotlit spotlighted, spotlitThe dramatic rise of online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic has spotlit concerns about the role of technology in exam surveillance — and also in student cheating. (source) Rare spotlight spotlighted spotlit spotlight
sneakWe’ve developed a new method to sneak large numbers of nanodiamonds into cells, largely undetected by the lysosomes, and without damaging the cell itself. (source) sneaked, snuckThe fungus that causes chestnut blight snuck into North America via infected nursery stock; four billion trees died in 40 years. (source) sneaked, snuckHave you ever wondered what is actually in the herbal medicine products you buy? Has the herb on the label been replaced with another herb? Have pharmaceuticals been snuck in? (source) Rare sneak sneaked snuck sneak
underpaySetting a floor, even a low one, limited an employer’s ability to underpay workers, ensured a minimum measure of purchasing power and allowed for fair competition between businesses. (source) underpaid underpaidThis is why auditors have been called into Sydney University where casual workers might have been underpaid as much as A$30 million over six years. (source) Rare underpay underpaid underpay
resitForcing students into doing more mathematics is ineffective, as seen with the controversial UK policy to make students who fail GCSE maths resit alongside their other post-16 subjects. (source) resat resat Rare resit resat resit
bustAfrica must bust the myth that girls aren’t good at maths and science (source) bust, busted bust, busted Rare bust bust
underwriteWelfare regimes all rely on the dividend of future productivity growth to underwrite increases in welfare spending. (source) underwroteTotems underwrote the ecological arrangement of Australia, creating an entire continent managed under the same Law for similar biodiverse purposes, no matter what the vegetation. (source) underwrittenHouseMate would offer loans underwritten by the federal government for up to 95% of the purchase price, charged at one percentage point above the cash rate, which at the moment would be 1.1% (source) Rare underwrite underwrote underwritten underwrite
undersellAnd yet, I’d be disappointed if this celebration of all things Darwinian began and ended with the great naturalist. Because I think a focus on the person tends to undersell the science, and the importance of science and reason in general. (source) undersold undersoldWriters need easy ways to communicate the strength of evidence without reducing interest or readability. But that can sometimes mean the public is over or undersold its relevance. (source) Rare undersell undersold undersell
unwindIt’s the end of a long day and you’re finally home, ready to unwind and recharge for the next day. (source) unwound unwoundBut Wu’s death, at a factory in Melbourne’s western suburbs on October 4 last year, also raises particular questions about responsibility in workplaces where traditional definitions of employment and employer obligations have been unwound. (source) Rare unwind unwound unwind
upholdTesting and proctoring methods that invade privacy and erode trust end up undermining the very integrity that institutions demand students uphold. (source) upheldThe U.S. Supreme Court upheld the Affordable Care Act for the third time on June 17, 2021, this time in a case called California v. Texas. (source) upheldHume then filed another court application to have his permit reinstated, which was upheld on Sunday. Such permits allow the buying and selling of rhino horn provided that the horns remain in the country after the sale. (source) Rare uphold upheld uphold
wetPeat should be always maintained in a moist condition so it wets up easily. Hydrology models to monitor drought and susceptibility can help predict the risk of fire. (source) wet, wetted wetAnzac Day has traditionally been the start of sowing season, after autumn rains have wet the soil enough for seeds to germinate. (source), wetted Rare wet wetted wet
refitBut there are plenty of other companies that take out long-term leases on offices and refit the space for short-term rental at higher rates. (source) refit, refitted refit, refitted Rare refit refitted refit
presetIf Apple product managers were to preset one default search engine in order to maximize user satisfaction, they would probably pick Google anyway. (source) preset presetRouter administrative passwords often are preset at the factory to default values that are widely known, like “admin” or “password.” (source) Rare preset preset preset
pleadDespite a constitutional right to a jury trial, more than 94% of criminal convictions in the United States result from guilty pleas, not jury verdicts. Even innocent people, those who did not commit the crimes of which they are accused, can plead guilty – and they do. (source) pleaded, pledHis attorney pled insanity, due to the extent of the personality changes following the accident. Sworn testimonies emphasised that “he seemed like a different man”. (source) pleaded, pled“Rick” has pled guilty to committing fraud as the head of a college counseling and preparation business and a sham charity, acting as the ringmaster of the entire web of wrongdoing. (source) Rare plead pleaded pled plead
overwriteA more sophisticated method of removing a file is to repeatedly overwrite the file data with random values and then delete it. (source) overwrote overwrittenDeleting a file only deletes the file’s information from the drive’s table of contents; the ones and zeros that make up the file remain on the drive. Until this data is overwritten, it is easy enough to look at this ghost data and reconstruct the file. (source) Rare overwrite overwrote overwritten overwrite
overspendWhen a group shares a common production function, they must decide how to divide the costs. For instance, if two friends want to share a pizza, how do they divide the costs. This is not so easy since they must also decide what size of pizza to order and a poor rule may cause them to overspend or underspend. (source) overspentThe CFPB found that about 11% of borrowers were charged at least one late fee in 2021, which suggests they overspent. (source) overspentGiven we live in an era of cuts and austerity it is surprising that, despite its annual £200m budget, it may have overspent by as much as £180m. (source) Rare overspend overspent overspend
overpayTherefore in many cases, if you are in the early stages of a mortgage and have the ability to overpay, you may save yourself a lot more money in the long run. (source) overpaid overpaidIt is sometimes believed that government employees are overpaid and unproductive, and therefore reductions in their numbers and pay can be achieved without negative impacts on public services. (source) Rare overpay overpaid overpay
overloadSensing that the virus may spread and overload the healthcare systems, the President imposed a three-week lockdown in the communities considered as infection hotspots. (source) overloaded overloaded, overladenOne of the ships in the collision, the Mont-Blanc, was dangerously overladen with hazardous cargo, including explosives in its bulk cargo hold and barrels of petrochemicals on the deck. (source) Rare overload overloaded overladen overload
overeatThis matters because when eating to cope with negative feelings is part of a broader tendency to overeat, it is likely to be associated with obesity and being overweight. (source) overateAnd parents who told us they frequently used food as a reward (or its withdrawal as a punishment) when their children were younger, were more likely to have children who emotionally overate when they were aged five to seven. (source) overeatenIf you’ve ever overeaten while feeling bored, fearful, stressed, lonely, tired or guilty, you’ve discovered that food can improve your mood (at least temporarily). (source) Rare overeat overate overeaten overeat
overdraw overdrew overdrawnThe problem is those crops use lots of precious groundwater, which is fast being depleted. State data shows that groundwater is being overdrawn by 14 billion cubic metres per year. In 1984, less than half of the state’s “administrative blocks” were over exploited, today it is nearing 80%. (source) Rare overdraw overdrew overdrawn overdraw
overbidGNER clearly knew the risks. Its failure was hardly surprising given Christopher Garnett, its then CEO, claimed it was better “to overbid and win than underbid and lose”. (source) overbid overbidThe operator soon realised it had grossly overbid. In the first year passenger revenues rose by just 3.3% compared to a projected 9.9%; costs rose too, faster than predicted. Within two years the government asked GNER to surrender the franchise. (source) Rare overbid overbid overbid
outfight outfought outfought Rare outfight outfought outfight
offsetBusinesses and states keen to offset their emissions of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO₂) are exploring ways to do so by funding the restoration of these so-called blue carbon habitats. (source) offset offsetWe combined this with similarly generated maps of carbon gained by secondary forests to work out what proportion of these emissions have already been offset. (source) Rare offset offset offset
mimicMore complex programs that mimic human voices assist people with disabilities – but can also be used to deceive listeners. (source) mimicked mimickedDavid Attenborough’s new documentary The Green Planet casts the spotlight on plants and their ability to inspire us. In just one recent example, engineers have successfully mimicked the shape of winged maple seeds to design new wind turbines. (source) Rare mimic mimicked mimic
mishearWhatever your brain tells you about Yanny/Laurel, the whole controversy should help everyone understand why it’s so hard to have a conversation in a noisy restaurant or why people with hearing loss sometimes “mishear” what you have to say. (source) misheard misheardEach time the message is relayed, some parts might be misheard or misunderstood, others might get innocently altered, improved, or forgotten. Over time the message can become very different from the original. (source) Rare mishear misheard mishear
lip-readMake sure there’s enough light in the room and that it’s sufficiently diffused to reduce or eliminate shadows on faces, making it easier for students to lip-read. It’s also important to keep the camera at an angle that gives lip-readers a good view of your face. (source) lip-read lip-read Rare lip-read lip-read lip-read
interweaveAs Ben Okri, a Nigerian writer, reminds us, such threads, which interweave stories and life, are deeply significant. This is because stories “can infect a system, or illuminate a world”. (source) interwoveThe two female singers sang above the surface, interacted with the water surface, and sang below the surface using a specially developed technique. The sounds were gorgeous, especially when the two voices interwove . (source) interwovenHowever, these galaxies represent only a few percent of a cluster’s total mass. About 80% of it is dark matter, and the rest is a hot plasma “soup”: gas heated to above 10,000,000℃ and interwoven with weak magnetic fields. (source) Rare interweave interwove interwoven interweave
interbreedWhen related species interbreed, the flow of new genetic diversity could help them adapt to warmer environments. (source) interbredWe looked at what happened when cold-adapted and warm-adapted rainbowfish interbred. (source) interbred Rare interbreed interbred interbreed
inputUsers input existing images into the software, which has been programmed to analyze them, learn a specific aesthetic and spit out new images that artists can curate. (source) input input Rare input input input
forgoGrace too was smitten, and in 2002 she decided to forgo her high school senior year to be with Alex. One year later, Grace gave birth to their first child. (source) forwentIn 2009, employees forwent $72 billion in wages, equivalent to six per cent of GDP. This “free” labour that workers “give” to their employers every year is just one part of the costs associated with overwork for individuals and for the broader community. (source) forgoneSo spoons and purees are being forgone to let infants eat at their own pace – which they are typically developmentally able to do at six-months-old. (source) Rare forgo forwent forgone forgo
bestrideHe may still bestride the world like a colossus, but the world is shifting under his feet. (source) bestrodeBut despite this, two millenia after he bestrode the world, his mausoleum lies in disrepair under piles of rubbish while his celebrated stables, only discovered five years ago, are to be reburied due to lack of funds. (source) bestridden Rare bestride bestrode bestridden bestride
miscast miscast miscast Rare miscast miscast
misdeal misdealt misdealt Rare misdeal misdealt misdeal
misgive misgave misgiven Rare misgive misgave misgiven misgive
misspend misspent misspent Rare misspend misspent misspend
outgo outwent outdone Rare outgo outwent outdone outgo
outride outrode outridden Rare outride outrode outridden outride
overleap overleapt, overleaped"overleaped" is the regular form of the past tense. Rare. overleapt, overleaped"overleaped" is the regular form of the past participle. Rare. Rare overleap overleapt overleaped overleap
oversleep overslept oversleptOf all the cosmic events, solar eclipses prompt perhaps the biggest change in animal behaviour. Puzzled animals that are active during the day head back to their nighttime abodes while nocturnal animals think they’ve overslept. (source) Rare oversleep overslept oversleep
rebind rebound rebound Rare rebind rebound rebind
underbid underbid underbid Rare underbid underbid underbid
wreakClimate change continues to wreak havoc with weather systems. (source) wroughtIf you have turned on a TV or read the news during the past few months, you have probably heard of the widespread fires that wrought havoc on the Amazon rainforest this year. (source) wroughtIn the 21st century, many cities were spooked by the rapid disruptions wrought by ride-hail companies such as Uber and Lyft. (source) Rare wreak wrought wreak

Participial Adjectives

Ed-participles (as well as ing-participles) are often used as adjectives (complicated question, worried parent etc.). But ed-participles also include the irregular forms (chosen, fallen, mistaken, stolen, burnt, etc) and these, too, are often used as adjectives. A few of them are used almost exclusively as adjectives rather than past participles. Some of them can be used both as predicativeSee the glossary definition and attributiveSee the glossary definition adjectives but the attributive use is more common. Here are some examples:

  • broken link, heart
  • burnt offerings, toast, remains
  • chosen field, profession
  • cloven hoof, foot
  • forbidden fruit, city
  • mistaken identity, belief
  • molten metal, rock, core, lead
  • mown grass, hay
  • overcast sky, day
  • proven ability, technology
  • sawn timber
  • shaven head, face
  • shorn lamb, sheep, head, hair
  • shrunken head, settlement, face
  • stolen property, goods, vehicles
  • sunken eyes, treasure, ships
  • swollen glands, joints
  • sworn enemy, statement, testimony
  • wrought iron, ironwork, gold

Many of these ed-participles are combined with adverbs, nouns, other adjectives, or adverbial particles to form adjectival compounds. For example:

  • new-born child, infant
  • well-chosen words, examples
  • half-eaten sandwich, apple
  • heart-felt thanks, gratitude
  • long-forgotten past, memories
  • far-flung places, areas
  • by-gone days, era
  • fully-grown adult, trees
  • firmly-held belief, principles
  • well-kept secret, gardens
  • well-known fact, example
  • long-lost brother, friend
  • ready-made clothing, solutions, meals
  • left-over food, pieces
  • state-run media, television, enterprises
  • long-sought goal, opportunity
  • poverty-stricken people, areas
  • self-taught artist, musician

Further Notes

  • hove is a nautical term meaning to move into a particular position
  • stricken is often used by journalists to describe disasters, as in the stricken vessel, aircraft, village etc. It is also used in adjectival compounds: flood-stricken, crisis-stricken, drought-stricken, fire-stricken, etc.
  • wrought in this archaic sense is a transitive verb meaning to create a particular form or shape by exerting force on a substance (usually a metal)

If you want to see more examples of how a word is used in context, you can use a web based corpus site such as Netspeak, or English-Corpora. Netspeak is simple and easy to use. English-Corpora requires you to sign up but offers many more options for research.