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Abbas, S. A. T. (2019, July 9). Curious Kids: How does electricity work? The Conversation.
Abbatangelo, C. (2023, February 12). Curious Kids: How does DNA affect our fingerprints and eye colour? The Conversation.
Addie, J.-P. (2017, August 11). Seven ways universities benefit society. The Conversation.
Agostini, A. (2019a, August 12). Curious Kids: Why don’t people fall out of bed when they are sleeping? The Conversation.
Agostini, A. (2019b, August 12). Curious Kids: Why don’t people fall out of bed when they are sleeping? The Conversation.
Ahmad, I. R. (n.d.). Historical films may be decaying much faster than we thought thanks to ‘vinegar syndrome’. The Conversation. Retrieved 30 May 2020, from
Alsmadi, I., & O’Brien, M. J. (2021, April 21). Misinformation, disinformation and hoaxes: What’s the difference? The Conversation.
Anderson-Sieg, T. D. (2021, March 22). Your brain thinks – but how? The Conversation.
Archambeault, D., & Webber, S. (2019, November 5). Curious Kids: What is a whistleblower? The Conversation.
Archibald, S. (2021, December 9). Curious Kids: If steam contains water, what does smoke from fire contain? The Conversation.
Ashley, S. (2019, November 20). Beyond fact-checking: 5 things schools should do to foster news literacy. The Conversation.
Ashton, P. (2022, February 2). Curious Kids: What do plants do all day? The Conversation.
Atkin-Smith, G., & Poon, I. (2020, September 16). Curious Kids: What are cells made out of? The Conversation.
Attard, C. (2017, October 25). Teaching kids about maths using money can set them up for financial security. The Conversation.
Ausich, W. (2021, August 16). Is it possible to recreate dinosaurs from their DNA? The Conversation.
Bamber, J. (n.d.). Greenland is melting: We need to worry about what’s happening on the largest island in the world. The Conversation. Retrieved 10 December 2022, from
Bamford, D., & Mayers, M. (n.d.). Transport experts explain why buses come in threes – and which one you should get on. The Conversation.
Barker, L. A. (2017, April 27). The science of laughter – and why it also has a dark side. The Conversation.
Baron, S. (2021, November 5). Curious Kids: What is energy made of? The Conversation.
Barton, M., & Todorovic, M. (2021, March 29). Curious Kids: Why are some kids left-handed and others are right-handed? The Conversation.
Berg, C. van den. (2019, October 23). Curious Kids: How does an optical illusion work? The Conversation.
Binns, C. (2020, February 27). How to make universities more inclusive? Hire more working-class academics. The Conversation.
Bogin, B. (2022, January 5). Curious Kids: Why didn’t other creatures evolve the intelligence humans have? The Conversation.
Bohra, A., & Varshney, R. (2023, May 8). Our tropical fruits are vulnerable to climate change. Can we make them resilient in time? The Conversation.
Bonne, N. (n.d.). Curious Kids: How many galaxies are there in the universe? The Conversation. Retrieved 10 January 2023, from
Bosi, S. G. (2021, March 18). Curious Kids: How do freezers work? The Conversation.
Brauner, D. (2020, April 20). Five eye-catching graphic novels that define the genre. The Conversation.
Brennan-Jones, C. (n.d.). Curious Kids: Why do seashells sound like the ocean when you put them to your ear? The Conversation. Retrieved 10 January 2023, from
Britten, B. (2022, November 28). How can you tell if something is true? Here are 3 questions to ask yourself about what you see, hear and read. The Conversation.
Britt-Smith, L. A. (2021, January 11). Why does grammar matter? The Conversation.
Brooks, R. (2021, April 4). Curious Kids: Why do people like to kiss? Do other animals kiss? The Conversation.
Brown, C. (2019, November 4). Curious Kids: How do fish sleep? The Conversation.
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Burrough, S. (2022, December 14). Why I’m righting the wrongs of my early research and sharing my scientific data with local communities. The Conversation.
Byron, T. (2019, October 16). Curious Kids: Is it OK to listen to music while studying? The Conversation.
Byskov, M. F. (2019, January 10). Climate change: Focusing on how individuals can help is very convenient for corporations. The Conversation.
Carrino, L., & Pabon, M. A. (n.d.). How simple policy changes can help us age better and prevent cognitive decline. The Conversation. Retrieved 30 May 2020, from
Cassill, D. (2022, September 12). How do ants crawl on walls? A biologist explains their sticky, spiky, gravity-defying grip. The Conversation.
Chronaki, G. (2019, October 23). Curious Kids: How does our brain send signals to our body? The Conversation.
Cotter, J. (2019, July 11). How did people clean their teeth in the olden days? The Conversation.
Coxhead, A. (2000). A New Academic Word List. TESOL Quarterly, 34(2), 213–238.
Crerar, J. (n.d.). Curious Kids: How is lava made? The Conversation. Retrieved 10 January 2023, from
Cushing, A. (2020, November 23). Why do tigers have stripes? The Conversation.
Dallman, L. (2022, October 10). Who invented music? The search for stone flutes, clay whistles and the dawn of song. The Conversation.
Daughtry, M. (2020, January 16). Why do onions make you cry? The Conversation.
Davis, O. (2023, January 19). Finding your essential self: The ancient philosophy of Zhuangzi explained. The Conversation.
Denning, S. (2022, April 18). Is it possible to heal the damage we have already done to the Earth? The Conversation.
Doddridge, E. (2022, November 21). What planting tomatoes shows us about climate change. The Conversation.
Dorrian, G., & Whittaker, I. (2020, April 24). Four amazing astronomical discoveries from ancient Greece. The Conversation.
Douglas, A., & Lord, B. (n.d.). Spinoza and ‘no platforming’: Enlightenment thinker would have seen it as motivated by ambition rather than fear. The Conversation. Retrieved 16 March 2020, from
Dreschel, N. (2020, July 2). Do dogs really see in just black and white? The Conversation.
Elagali, A., Robidart, J., Quigley, K. M., & Bayer, P. (n.d.). Spotting plastic waste from space and counting the fish in the seas: Here’s how AI can help protect the oceans. The Conversation. Retrieved 16 December 2022, from
Evans, C. (2017, September 19). University education makes you a better citizen. The Conversation.
Fabiano, G. (2021, October 25). What causes ADHD and can it be cured? The Conversation.
Fairchild, M. D. (2019, October 3). How do my eyes adjust to the dark and how long does it take? The Conversation.
Farina, L. (2022, December 12). How are books made? The Conversation.
Fedrizzi, A., & Malik, M. (2022, November 8). Four common misconceptions about quantum physics. The Conversation.
Fitchett, J. (2021, November 11). Curious Kids: Why does cold air go down and hot air go up? The Conversation.
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Francis, P. (n.d.). Running shoes may cause injuries – but is going barefoot the fix? The Conversation. Retrieved 7 June 2020, from
Futrell, R. (n.d.). When was talking invented? A language scientist explains how this unique feature of human beings may have evolved. The Conversation. Retrieved 7 January 2023, from
Gentle, L. (2020, June 8). Curious Kids: Why do so many dangerous animals live in Australia? The Conversation.
Gibson, R. L. (2021, November 22). Curious Kids: Why are there so few impact craters on Earth? The Conversation.
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Gorman, A. (2020, August 27). Can the Moon be a person? As lunar mining looms, a change of perspective could protect Earth’s ancient companion. The Conversation.
Götherström, A., & Dalén, L. (n.d.). Nobel prize: Svante Pääbo’s ancient DNA discoveries offer clues as to what makes us human. The Conversation. Retrieved 16 December 2022, from
Graves, J. (2019, October 1). Curious Kids: How do scientists know evolution is real? The Conversation.
Griffiths, B. J., & Hanslmayr, S. (n.d.). How memories are formed and retrieved by the brain revealed in a new study. The Conversation. Retrieved 20 November 2019, from
Gruner, E. (2019, November 18). Why do teachers make us read old stories? The Conversation.
Guijarro-Clarke, C., & Paps, J. (2020, March 2). Evolution: That famous ‘march of progress’ image is just wrong. The Conversation.
Gunn, A., & Pitt, S. (n.d.). Curious Kids: What is snail slime – and why is it shiny? The Conversation. Retrieved 9 January 2023, from
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Harkess, R. L. (2021, March 1). Why do flowers smell? The Conversation.
Hegh, D., & Usman, K. A. S. (n.d.). Curious Kids: How is fabric made? The Conversation. Retrieved 10 January 2023, from
Helms, C. (2022, July 11). What do molecules look like? The Conversation.
Hodgetts, C. (n.d.). How we discovered that brain connections shape memories. The Conversation. Retrieved 15 November 2019, from
Hoffman, R. (n.d.). Ultra-processed foods: It’s not just their low nutritional value that’s a concern. The Conversation. Retrieved 18 December 2022, from
Hoggart, R. (2009). The uses of literacy: Aspects of working-class life.
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Horner, J., & Hill, T. (2022, May 3). The Eta Aquariid meteor shower is set to light up the skies. Here’s how to get the best seat in the house. The Conversation.
Houser, J. L. (2022, May 2). What do tornadoes look like on the inside? The Conversation.
Huang, S. (2023, January 23). How has the inside of the Earth stayed as hot as the Sun’s surface for billions of years? The Conversation.
Hughes, K. (2021, June 7). Why are some mushrooms poisonous? The Conversation.
Hulme, R. C., Barsky, D., & Rodd, J. M. (2019). Incidental Learning and Long-Term Retention of New Word Meanings From Stories: The Effect of Number of Exposures. Language Learning, 69(1), 18–43.
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Jeeson-Daniel, A. (n.d.). Explainer: What are stars? The Conversation. Retrieved 6 September 2019, from
Johnson, E. (2022, January 3). Why can’t we throw all our trash into a volcano and burn it up? The Conversation.
Jordan, S. (2019, November 7). Origins of life: New evidence first cells could have formed at the bottom of the ocean. The Conversation.
Justice, L. V., Conway, M., & Akhtar, S. (2018, September 4). What is your first memory – and did it ever really happen? The Conversation.
Kanngieser, A. (2018, October 21). Climate change: Nauru’s life on the frontlines. The Conversation.
Koirala, A. (2019, August 19). Curious Kids: How does our blood fight viruses like chicken pox and colds? The Conversation.
Krigolson, O. (2023, March 1). Curious Kids: What happens to your brain if you don’t get enough sleep? The Conversation.
Kuhn, D. R. (2020, January 29). Curious Kids: Why are some planets surrounded by rings? The Conversation.
Lam, M. (2020, April 30). How could an explosive Big Bang be the birth of our universe? The Conversation.
Lam-Cassettari, C. (2019, May 3). Curious Kids: How do babies learn to talk? The Conversation.
Langen, T. (2022, August 29). Do humans really need other species? The Conversation.
Larkin, T. (2020, February 19). Curious Kids: Why don’t burns bleed? The Conversation.
Lavrentovich, M. (n.d.). Why does nature create patterns? A physicist explains the molecular-level processes behind crystals, stripes and basalt columns. The Conversation. Retrieved 9 January 2023, from
Law, B. (2021, April 26). How do people make paper out of trees, and why not use something else? The Conversation.
Laycock, S. (2023, February 13). Why does the Earth spin? The Conversation.
Lemons, K., Kenney, R., & Lin, W. (2020, June 1). What makes something smell good or bad? The Conversation.
Licato, J. (2023, April 20). AI-generated spam may soon be flooding your inbox—And it will be personalized to be especially persuasive. The Conversation.
Lieu, M. (2021, November 23). Curious Kids: What are the rings around planets made of? The Conversation.
Linares, C., & Barber, J. (n.d.). Why are moths attracted to light? The Conversation. Retrieved 7 June 2020, from
Little, M. A. (2023, February 27). Is the Loch Ness monster real? The Conversation.
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Longrich, N. R. (2020, January 3). How the extinction of ice age mammals may have forced us to invent civilisation. The Conversation.
Loon, J. van. (2022, January 6). Curious Kids: Could the Earth ever stop spinning, and what would happen if it did? The Conversation.
Lopes, A. M., Power, E., & Crabtree, L. (2020, January 28). How to cope with extreme heat days without racking up the aircon bills. The Conversation.
Lorch, M. (2023, March 1). How amateur scientists are still helping make important discoveries. The Conversation.
Lovett, B. (2022, March 28). How did cockroaches survive the asteroid that led to the extinction of dinosaurs? The Conversation.
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Lyons, K. (n.d.). Explainer: What is ‘classification’ at the Paralympics? The Conversation. Retrieved 5 September 2019, from
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Mahy, C. (2019, September 23). Your preschooler’s forgetfulness isn’t bad behaviour and nagging them won’t help. The Conversation.
Margot, J.-L. (2021, July 19). Are there any planets outside of our solar system? The Conversation.
Marti-Cardona, B., & Torres-Batlló, J. (2021, January 11). Lake Poopó: Why Bolivia’s second largest lake disappeared – and how to bring it back. The Conversation.
Martin, F. (2023, March 13). What exactly is the internet? A computer scientist explains what it is and how it came to be. The Conversation.
Marty, C., Boucher, J.-F., Viana, L. R., & Dessureault, P.-L. (2023, January 5). Here’s how your cup of coffee contributes to climate change. The Conversation.
Maslin, M. (2019, November 28). The five corrupt pillars of climate change denial. The Conversation.
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McCormick, K. (2020, June 22). What is the slowest thing on Earth? The Conversation.
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McMakin, D. (2021, May 10). How much sleep do you really need? The Conversation.
Meijaard, E., Voigt, M., & Wich, S. (2018, February 15). We surveyed Borneo’s orangutans and found 100,000 had ‘disappeared’. The Conversation.
Messac, L. (2018, June 20). Women’s unpaid work must be included in GDP calculations: Lessons from history. The Conversation.
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Mocatta, G., & White, R. (2020, October 19). This is how universities can lead climate action. The Conversation.
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Mowery, D. C. (2019, November 26). What the US defence industry can tell us about how to fight climate change. The Conversation.
Mulgan, G. (2022, November 14). Politics urgently needs more imagination. Competence alone will not save us from this ‘polycrisis’. The Conversation.
Munro, J. (2020, November 5). Curious Kids: How can we concentrate on study without getting distracted? The Conversation.
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Nash, R. (2018, December 17). Are memories reliable? Expert explains how they change more than we realise. The Conversation.
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Naylor, G. (n.d.). Why do hammerhead sharks have hammer-shaped heads? The Conversation. Retrieved 9 January 2023, from
Nikolova, N. (2019, October 14). Curious Kids: How can we see what we are imagining as well as what’s in front of us? The Conversation.
Nolan, R. H. (2019, November 21). Curious Kids: Why does wood crackle in a fire? The Conversation.
Noreen, S. (2015, September 15). The internet is eating your memory, but something better is taking its place. The Conversation.
Norwich, J. J. (2016). Sicily. John Murray Publishers Lt.
Nyman, S. (n.d.). Tai chi health benefits? What the research says. The Conversation. Retrieved 7 June 2020, from
Olenycz, M., Sokołowski, A., Niewińska, A., Wołowicz, M., Namieśnik, J., Hummel, H., & Jansen, J. (2015). Comparison of PCBs and PAHs levels in European coastal waters using mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex as biomonitors. Oceanologia, 57(2), 196–211.
Oliver, S. (2022, January 27). Curious Kids: What would happen if all the mosquitoes in the world disappeared? The Conversation.
O’Neill, K. (2023, March 6). Will we eventually have to send our trash into space if we run out of room on Earth? The Conversation.
Parke, E. (2022, February 23). Curious Kids: What is the most important thing a scientist needs? The Conversation.
Parker, C., Edwards, H., & Finlayson, K. (2019, August 30). Curious Kids: How do wounds heal? The Conversation.
Pennington, C., & Shaw, D. (2023, January 4). Your style of social media use may be connected to your wellbeing. The Conversation.
Peppe, D., McNulty, K., & MacLatchy, L. M. (2023, April 13). Wooded grasslands flourished in Africa 21 million years ago – new research forces a rethink of ape evolution. The Conversation.
Phelps, C., & Moro, C. (2021, April 30). Curious Kids: Why do we have eyebrows? The Conversation.
Pirotta, V. (n.d.). Curious kids: Why don’t whales have teeth like we do? The Conversation. Retrieved 9 January 2023, from
Poropat, S. (2020, November 26). Curious Kids: Could dinosaurs evolve back into existence? The Conversation.
Power, N. (2021, February 23). Curious Kids: How does our brain know to make immediate decisions? The Conversation.
Prendergast, M. (n.d.). What’s next for ancient DNA studies after Nobel Prize honors groundbreaking field of paleogenomics. The Conversation. Retrieved 24 December 2022, from
Pyne, S. J. (2018). Style and Story: Literary Methods for Writing Nonfiction (1st ed.). University of Arizona Press.
Quinn, K., & Mehta, P. (2020, October 13). Curious Kids: How do vaccines kill viruses? The Conversation.
Rawlings, J. (2022, December 23). Curious Kids: Why doesn’t the rainbow have black, brown and grey in it? The Conversation.
Reynolds, S. (2023, February 15). Insects are vanishing worldwide – now it’s making it harder to grow food. The Conversation.
Riddle, S. (2023, February 21). The My School website has just been updated. What makes a ‘good’ school? The Conversation.
Ritchie, E. (2022, August 4). Curious Kids: What is the apex predator of the world? The Conversation.
Roberts-Thomson, K. (n.d.). How much is general health affected by oral health? The Conversation.
Rogerson, J. (2021, April 8). Curious Kids: What is the sky? The Conversation.
Roossinck, M. J. (2020, May 5). The mysterious disappearance of the first SARS virus, and why we need a vaccine for the current one but didn’t for the other. The Conversation.
Rosell-Aguilar, F. (2018, June 5). Can you learn a language with an app? What the research says. The Conversation.
Sabolova, K. (n.d.). Are firstborns really natural leaders? The Conversation. Retrieved 1 June 2020, from
Sahakian, B. J., Langley, C., Feng, J., & Cheng, W. (n.d.). Sleep: Here’s how much you really need for optimal cognition and wellbeing – new research. The Conversation. Retrieved 10 December 2022, from
Satterley, S. (2020, September 9). Curious Kids: What is the Bermuda Triangle and why is it considered dangerous? The Conversation.
Scharrer, E., & Martins, N. (2022, July 18). Children are bombarded with violence in the news – here’s how to help them cope. The Conversation.
Schmid, H.-J. (2000). English abstract nouns as conceptual shells: From corpus to cognition. Mouton de Gruyter.
Schmid, K. (2021, February 5). Curious Kids: Why do we see different colours when we close our eyes? The Conversation.
Sekeres, M. A. (2022, January 31). Why do we bleed? A hematologist explains how the body prevents blood loss after injury. The Conversation.
Seresinhe, C. I., Preis, T., MacKerron, G., & Moat, H. S. (2019). Happiness is Greater in More Scenic Locations. Scientific Reports, 9(1), Article 1.
Simner, J. (2021, May 11). Curious Kids: Why do people with synaesthesia link senses, and how does it work? The Conversation.
Simons, E. (2021, April 5). How did humans evolve, and will we evolve more? The Conversation.
Singal, J. (2021, June 21). Does outer space end – or go on forever? The Conversation.
Sirois, F. (2022, August 16). Procrastinating is linked to health and career problems – but there are things you can do to stop. The Conversation.
Skromne, I. (2022, July 18). When did the first fish live on Earth – and how do scientists figure out the timing? The Conversation.
Smart, B. (2022, April 6). Curious Kids: How likely is it that there are parallel universes and other Earths? The Conversation.
Sorg, M. (2021, June 28). A pediatric nurse explains the science of sneezing. The Conversation.
Spencer, E., & Papastamatiou, Y. (2022, May 9). What does an octopus eat? For a creature with a brain in each arm, whatever’s within reach. The Conversation.
Starling, M. (2021, January 4). Curious Kids: How can we tell if an animal is happy without a wagging tail? The Conversation.
Stevens, R. G. ‘Bugs’. (2015, April 6). A dark night is good for your health. The Conversation.
Stevens-Rumann, C. (2023, April 10). How do trees die? The Conversation.
Stewart, B., & Yohe, G. W. (2022, June 13). Could steam-powered cars decrease the CO2 in the atmosphere and help with climate change? The Conversation.
Stokes, P. (2012, October 4). No, you’re not entitled to your opinion. The Conversation.
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Stringfellow, A., Williams, I., & Roberts, K. P. (n.d.). Rubbish is piling up and recycling has stalled – waste systems must adapt. The Conversation. Retrieved 10 May 2020, from
Stucky, R. T. (2022, February 28). Is it possible to listen to too much music each day? The Conversation.
Su, D. (2022, June 27). How many ice ages has the Earth had, and could humans live through one? The Conversation.
Syme, C. (2019, December 6). Curious Kids: How do we know if a dinosaur skeleton is from a child dinosaur or an adult dinosaur? The Conversation.
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Teal, F. (2016, January 27). What makes companies in one country so much more productive than in another? The Conversation.
Temple, J. L. (2020, January 23). Is it OK for teens to drink coffee? The Conversation.
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Völter, C. (2019, August 13). Chimpanzees’ working memory is remarkably similar to our own. The Conversation.
Walker, E. D. (2022, August 1). If all the vehicles in the world were to convert to electric, would it be quieter? The Conversation.
Watson, J. C. (2023, April 11). Anyone can claim to be a journalist or a news organization, and publish lies with almost total impunity. The Conversation.
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Wills, M. (2020, October 22). Curious Kids: How did some animals evolve wings to fly? The Conversation.
Winder, I. C., & Shaw, V. (2019, December 5). Why some scientists want to rewrite the history of how we learned to walk. The Conversation.
Wishart, A. (2020, May 14). Curious Kids: Why do chipmunks live on the ground but squirrels live in trees? The Conversation.
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Younger, J. (2019, July 1). Curious Kids: How can penguins stay warm in the freezing cold waters of Antarctica? The Conversation.
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Other Credits

Many of the texts used as examples were taken from The Conversation, one of the very few publications which allows republication of their articles. It is a fine source of good writing by experts on many subjects. Students are strongly recommended to consult this site for articles of interest to them.

The animations on this site were created in HYPE.