Non-finite passive constructions may be used to post-modify a noun or as the complement of a verb. Long and short passives are used in both these cases.
This agentless passive post-modifies a noun or noun phrase.
apple tree saplingsnoun phrase planted todaypassive postmodifier "planted" + noun "today" (context)It takes years for apple tree saplings planted today to begin bearing saleable fruit. (Bohra and Varshney 2023)
The molecular processesnoun phrase involvedpassive postmodifier "involved" (context)The molecular processes involved are simple enough that they might coincidentally generate a pattern. (Lavrentovich 2022)
This passive post-modifies a noun or noun phrase and is accompanied by a by-phrase.
a powerful energy sourcenoun phrase created by naturenon-finite passive postmodifier "created" + agent (by-phrase) "by nature" (context)Above our heads there is a powerful energy source created by nature, the Sun. (Wu 2021)
a common ancestor noun phrase shared by Triceratops and modern birdsnon-finite passive postmodifier "shared" + agent (by-phrase) "by Triceratops and modern birds" (context)hese all descended from a common ancestor shared by Triceratops and modern birds. (Poropat 2020)
This agentless passive is the infinitive (to) complement of a verb.
beginsverb phrase to be experiencednon-finite passive infinitive complement of the verb "begins" (context)Over time, this combination of imagery and fact begins to be experienced as a memory. (Justice, Conway, and Akhtar 2018)
needverb phrase to be looked afternon-finite passive infinitive complement of the verb "need" (context)It’s important to remember, just like your puppy or kitten, bees need to be looked after too. (Schouten 2020)
This agentless passive is the ed-clause complement of a verb.
don’t wantverb phrase red dyeobject addednon-finite ed complement of the verb "want" (context)Did you know that hummingbirds probably don’t want red dye addedto their sugar water? (Pollock 2019)
getverb phrase themobject diagnosed and treatednon-finite ed complements of the verb "get", (context)If you think you have migraine attacks, get them diagnosed and treated properly. (Yates 2021)
This long passive is the infinitive (to) complement of a verb.
knownverb phrase to have been usednon-finite infinitive (to) complement of the verb "known" by both Neanderthals and Homo sapiensagent (by-phrase) (context)Two of these were made using the Levallois method – a characteristic manufacturing technique known to have been used by both Neanderthals and Homo sapiens. (Abbas, Petraglia, and Lai 2023)
are knownverb phrase to have been usednon-finite infinitive (to) complement of the verb "known" by different civilisationsagent (by-phrase) (context)More than 100 distinct notation systemsare known to have been used by different civilisations, including Babylonian, Egyptian, Etruscan, Mayan and Khmer. (Grace 2023)
believedverb phrase to have been causednon-finite infinitive (to) complement of the verb "believed" by a flu-like infection called brucellosisagent (by-phrase). (context)In 1857, around a year after returning from the Crimean War, Nightingale suffered a severe collapse, now believed to have been caused by a flu-like infection called brucellosis. (Bates 2020)
This long passive is the ed-clause complement of a verb.
to haveverb phrase chronic and recurrent headachesobject diagnosed properly by a doctored-clause complement of "have" plus an agent (by-clause) (context)It’s essential to have chronic and recurrent headaches diagnosed properly by a doctor. (Yates 2021)
to have verb phrase itobject recognizeded-clause complement of "have" by their institutions agent (by-clause) (context)Many academics might feel compelled to continue to use Latinx because they fought hard to have it recognized by their institutionsor have already published the term in an academic journal. (Ochoa 2022)