Writing Glossary

Glossary of Words and Phrases related to Writing

abbreviation
noun COUNTABLE a shortened form of a word or a phrase : Abbreviations, especially acronyms, are common in reports written for specialists (scientists, economists, etc.). if the text is written for non-specialists, the abbreviations should be written out in full where they are first mentioned in the text. Compare with acronyms.
abstract
noun COUNTABLE a very short form of an article or other text, giving only the most essential information
abstract
adjective existing as a thought or feeling rather than as a something concrete, material, tangible : "Note, too, the value of using specific examples such as "lemons and carrots” rather than abstract words like agriculture …” (Pyne 2018)

abstract


ideas
concepts
nouns
terms
principles
form
thought
theory
quality
notion


abstraction
noun the consideration of the qualities and characteristics of an entity rather than its physical properties
academic integrity
noun phrase being honest and truthful about your work : Academic integrity includes a) not plagiarising, b) citing your sources correctly, c) presenting only work which is your own, d) collaborating with others only within the limits of your institution’s guidelines, e) not cheating in exams, f) not submitting work which has been previously submitted. More information about academic integrity is available on the plagiarism faqs page.
acknowledgement
noun COUNTABLE 1. recognition of a source of information by stating its origin with a correctly formatted citation; 2. a statement of appreciation of help given
acronym
noun COUNTABLE an abbreviation of a series of words (usually a noun phrase) consisting of the first letter of each word in the phrase : UNESCO: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization; ASEAN: Association of Southeast Asian Nations. Compare with abbreviation.
active
adjective describes a verb when the subject of the sentence performs the action : In the sentence, "The boy is washing the dog.”, "The boy” is the subject and performs the action. "is washing” is a verb in the active voice. Compare with the passive.
addition
noun a textual element (sentence, paragraph, section) which adds further information about an argument : These elements are often introduced with adverbials such as "In addition”, "Furthermore” etc. See how adverbials are managed on the adverbials page.
adjective
noun COUNTABLE a word which provides more information about the noun to which it is attached (either preceding the noun or with a copula verb)
adverb
noun COUNTABLE a word which provides more information about a verb, adjective or adverb to which it is attached
adverbial
noun COUNTABLE an adverb phrase used to provide circumstantial information about a clause, to indicate the writer’s stance, or to link units of discourse by indicating their relationship : See how adverbials are managed on the adverbials page.
affix
noun a group of letters attached to the beginning or end of a word which changes to meaning or form of that word : See also prefix and suffix.
allegory
noun COUNTABLE a literary work in which the story represents particular qualities, ideals or moralities
alliteration
noun the repetition of consonants for its effect, especially used in poetry (and occasionally in newspaper headlines, football chants and children’s nicknames) : Not used in serious non fiction writing.
allusion
noun COUNTABLE an indirect reference to something outside the text (e.g. another text, a person, a well known story)
ambiguity
noun COUNTABLE uncertainty about meaning or reference because of the way a phrase or sentence is structured.
anachronism
noun COUNTABLE a reference to something which is cannot really happen because it is in in the wrong time in history
analogy
noun COUNTABLE the use of a comparison between things which share some similar features in order to make an explanation clearer

analogy


close    
good    
simple    
historical    
striking    
interesting    
obvious    
useful    
direct    
illuminating    


analysis
noun the process of breaking apart an entity (idea, topic, object …) into its component parts in order to better understand and be able to describe it
annual
noun a publication which is issued once a year
anonymous
adjective describes a source for which no author is known
antecedent
noun the thing, already mentioned in a text, which is being referred to
antithesis
noun COUNTABLE words or ideas which are in contrast because they are opposites
aphorism
noun COUNTABLE a short sentence containing some important thought or observation
apostrophe
noun COUNTABLE a punctuation mark used to indicate possession or the omission of a letter or letters : Fred’s work wasn’t submitted on time.
appendix
noun an additional section of a text placed towards the end in which extra information such as diagrams, tables, survey results may be placed for consultation
apposition
noun UNCOUNTABLE placed next to : Noun phrases are often placed next to another in English to provide more information about, or explanation of, a noun phrase immediately preceding it.
archaism
noun COUNTABLE the use of a word or phrase or construction which is no longer in current use : Archaisms should not be used unless for special (e.g. humorous) effect.
argument
noun a statement used with reasoning and, usually, evidence to show that something is true
article
noun 1. the word "the” (definite article) or "a(n)” (indefinite article; 2. a piece of writing on a particular subject written for publication in a journal, magazine or newspaper
assignment
noun a task required by an authority (usually an instructor) to be completed according to given criteria before a certain date (the deadline)
attribute
verb to state who wrote the information or quotation
attribution
noun a statement about who the author of a work is considered to be
audience
noun COUNTABLE the person or people you as a writer expect will read your text
author
noun COUNTABLE the writer of (an article, a report, a book, etc.). The author may be a group of people if they write on behalf of an organisation (a corporate author).
author
verb TRANSITIVE FORMAL to write (an article, a report, a book, etc.)
authority
noun COUNTABLE a respected expert on a particular subject matter
bibliography
noun COUNTABLE a list of sources referenced in your text, or consulted during the preparation of your text and relevant to your topic : A List of References normally contains only works cited in your text, whereas a bibliography may be more wide-ranging.
biography
noun COUNTABLE an account of someone’s life and works
block quote
noun a quotation formatted by placing it in a separate indented paragraph : A block quote is used without quotation marks where the quotation is longer than 40 words instead of inserting it in line with quotation marks.
brackets
noun punctuation marks ( ) used to enclose and separate a short portion of text : Also known as parentheses in American English.
brainstorm
verb to gather possible ideas (usually in a group) by thinking freely about a topic with a view to evaluating these ideas later : See how you can brainstorm to get ideas and sources together on the brainstorming page.
cause
noun something (usually an action) which provokes an event or a result (an effect)
cause and effect
noun a common text pattern in which causes and their effects are analysed or used in support of the writer’s arguments : See how cause and effect is used in a real text on the cause and effect page.
citation
noun COUNTABLE words spoken or written by another person, the source of which is declared : Often "citation” is taken to mean the correctly formatted source of the quotation or paraphrase. See how to cite on the citation page.
cite
verb to write words spoken or written by another person and to formally declare the source : There are strict rules about how the source of a quotation or paraphrase should be formatted. See how to cite on the in-text citations page.
claim
noun COUNTABLE a statement of the writer’s belief : In writing, claims need evidence. The reader needs to know why an assertion made by the writer should be believable.

claim


main    
strong    
legitimate    
valid    
major    
prior    
original    
central    
minor    
dubious    


classification
noun COUNTABLE the act of grouping elements into various classes according to their characteristics : See how classification is used in a real text on the classification page.
clause
noun COUNTABLE a clause is composed of phrases and contains a verb. It is highest level of grammatical structure below the sentence.

clause


main    
subordinate    
relative    
dependent    
adverbial    
independent    
conditional    
adjectival    
finite    
    


cliché
noun COUNTABLE a phrase which has become fixed and is overused : Everyone uses clichés. They are unavoidable. However, it is good practice not to overuse them run your writing otherwise your text becomes stale and boring.
coherence
noun UNCOUNTABLE coherence is concerned with the way a text seems to have a connected and logical flow : Unlike cohesion, coherence is not a feature of the text itself; it is the reader who decides how coherent a text is based on his or her perception of the logical flow of the arguments in the text.
cohesion
noun UNCOUNTABLE cohesion is a feature of the text itself and concerns the way in which certain grammatical items (such as pronouns) and words can connect a sentence to previous (and, sometimes, later) ones : Cohesion is not coherence but cohesive ties contribute to the coherence of a text by providing the reader with pointers to the connections in the text.
cohesive
adjective connected, tied together : Cohesive text is text which has the quality of being a unified whole because of the connections (cohesive ties) within the text itself.
colon
noun COUNTABLE a punctuation mark (:) used as a stop, often to introduce an example or clarification of the information in the text preceding the colon
comma
noun COUNTABLE a punctuation mark (,) which separates one part of a sentence from another : Commas are used to separate items in a list and to separate clauses.
comparison
noun COUNTABLE a textual element (sentence, paragraph, section) in which similarities and differences are examined : See how comparison is used in a real text on the comparison/contrast page 1 or comparison/contrast page 2

comparison


direct    
interesting    
detailed    
simple    
systematic    
statistical    
fair    
appropriate    
good    
useful    


composition
noun COUNTABLE a short essay written by a student as an exercise in writing
compound noun
noun a noun phrase constructed with a noun and another noun (or nouns), a verb, or an adjective : table lamp (noun + noun), gunfire (noun + verb), current affairs (adjective + noun)
conclusion
noun COUNTABLE the end of a piece of writing contained in a separate paragraph or paragraphs, usually consisting of a summary of the main points and any necessary remarks or recommendations
concrete
adjective having substance, clarity and definition

concrete


terms
evidence
proposals
examples
form
expression
action
proof
noun
results


context
noun UNCOUNTABLE the text which surrounds a word phrase or sentence and which influences the meaning of those elements

context


different    
historical    
political    
wide    
social    
particular    
specific    
appropriate    
cultural    
    


contrast
noun a textual element (sentence, paragraph, section) in which differences are examined : See how contrast is used in a real text on the comparison-contrast page 1 or comparison-contrast page 2

contrast


marked    
sharp    
stark    
complete    
direct    
strong    
striking    
total    
great    
clear    


copyright
noun the right of a person, persons or legal entity to assert rights of ownership and reproduction of their creative work
counter argument
compound noun an argument against a previously stated argument, statement, or point of view : In stating a case it is important to look at other possible points of view and offer reasons and evidence why these may not be as strong as the case you are making
cover sheet
compound noun a page, usually pre-formatted, required to be attached to an assignment upon submission, supplying information about the assignment, the writer and other pertinent details
critique
noun a detailed evaluation or criticism of a piece of writing - both of the writing itself and on the opinions contained therein
cross-reference
compound noun a reference in a piece of writing to another reference elsewhere in the same document
discipline
noun COUNTABLE an area of study
discourse
noun UNCOUNTABLE written or spoken communication
discourse analysis
compound noun the study of how text is used for particular purposes in socio-cultural situations

discourse


spoken    
political    
written    
everyday    
medical    
legal    
public    
literary    
ordinary    


dissertation
noun COUNTABLE a long text normally written by a student to demonstrate mastery of a particular area of study
document
noun COUNTABLE a text written for a particular purpose and in a particular format

document


legal    
original    
relevant    
important    
official    
formal    
written    
confidential    
final    
    


draft
noun COUNTABLE a version of a piece of writing which is not complete or is yet to be reviewed and revised

draft


final    
original    
preliminary    
rough    
revised    
initial    
alternative    
unfinished    
unpublished    
definitive    


edit
verb to review and revise a piece of writing before final submission
edition
noun COUNTABLE 1. one of a series of publications issued at regular intervals; 2. a single publication which may be republished with additions and/or alterations

edition


new    
revised    
current    
recent    
previous    
original    
updated    
final    
expanded    
illustrated    


editor
noun COUNTABLE someone who reviews and revises a text
effect
noun the result of a particular action or initiating cause

effect


adverse    
significant    
profound    
beneficial    
positive    
devastating    
damaging    
important    
powerful    
    


ellipsis
noun UNCOUNTABLE a cohesive device, similar to substitution, where an element is omitted because it can be retrieved from the context of the text : See more about ellipsis on the elllipsis page.
endnote
noun COUNTABLE a note containing further information or explanations added to the end of a chapter, section or article
enumeration
noun UNCOUNTABLE the ordered listing of items in a text : See how enumeration is used in a real text on the enumeration page.
epigram
noun COUNTABLE a very short piece of text saying much in a few words
essay
noun COUNTABLE a piece of writing on a particular topic often written by students as a demonstration of their writing ability or their knowledge of a particular area of study
euphemism
noun COUNTABLE a word or phrase used to substitute for an unpleasant or offensive one
evidence
noun UNCOUNTABLE information presented as support for the truth of an argument

evidence


empirical    
new    
clear    
sufficient    
direct    
scientific    
strong    
conclusive    
ample    
hard    


expository
adjective used to describe non-fiction writing which is explanatory or descriptive rather than persuasive : Compare with persuasive

expository


writing
text
prose
essay
style
lecture
purposes
articles
discourse
passages


extract
noun a short section of writing taken from another document
feedback
noun UNCOUNTABLE information provided by a reviewer or examiner on the value of a piece of writing with suggestions about how it might be improved

feedback


positive    
negative    
immediate    
useful    
good    
constructive    
valuable    
appropriate    
helpful    
effective    


finite clause
noun a clause which contains a finite verb (one which has a subject and which shows tense) and which can stand as an independent clause
focus
noun a clear and well defined idea around which a sentence, paragraph, section, or entire piece or writing is constructed : See also topic and thesis.

focus


main    
central    
major    
primary    
principal    
particular    
prime    
important    
specific    
    


footnote
noun COUNTABLE a note containing further information or explanations added to the end of a page
foreword
noun a short introduction (usually to a book or lengthy article) often written by someone other than the author of the main work, providing preparatory information about the work
formal words
noun phrase words which are used in official or technical documents but which may not often be used in everyday speech or writing : commence (formal) for begin (informal); purchase (formal) for buy (informal)
format
noun COUNTABLE the layout and typography of a text : You should abide by formatting guidelines if they have been stipulated.
freewriting
noun UNCOUNTABLE to write freely and quickly for a short timed period without regard to format, grammar punctuation etc. in order to generate ideas
full stop
noun COUNTABLE a punctuation mark (.) which marks the end of a sentence : Also known in American English as a period.
glossary
noun COUNTABLE a list of definitions and explanations such as this one explaining terms used in a particular content area, arranged alphabetically
header
noun COUNTABLE text (such as a chapter or section title) placed in the top of every page in a text
heading
noun COUNTABLE the title of a section of text
hedge
verb to avoid absolute commitment to an argument or thesis by using words or grammar which introduce an element of doubt or tentativeness
hedging
noun UNCOUNTABLE the avoidance of absolute commitment to an argument or thesis by using words or grammar which introduce an element of doubt or tentativeness : This technique may also be used not because you have doubts about your argument but because it may be easier for your reader to accept your ideas if they are expressed less forcefully.
hyphen
noun COUNTABLE a short line which connects two parts of a compound word : self-help, eye-opener
hypothesis
noun COUNTABLE an idea which is open to testing and which can be refuted through demonstration or experiment

hypothesis


null    
working    
specific    
alternative    
original    
correct    
interesting    
reasonable    
simple    
testable    


idiom
noun COUNTABLE a fixed phrase in which normal rules of grammar may be broken and whose meaning may not be obvious from the words themselves : Idioms are rarely used in academic or technical writing. If English is not your native language you should be wary of using idiomatic forms in your text as they may sound odd.
indent
noun COUNTABLE a short space at the beginning of a line or section of text : Indents are used to indicate the beginning of a new paragraph and block quotations.
index
noun COUNTABLE a list of items contained in a text ordered alphabetically for ease of reference
intransitive
adjective this refers to verbs which do not take an object
introduction
noun 1. a paragraph at the beginning of a piece of writing which gives the main idea of the work; 2. a section at the beginning of a book or other lengthy piece of writing providing the main idea for the work, background information and other essential details helpful to the reader : See more about introductions on the essay planning page.
irony
noun UNCOUNTABLE the use of words which imply the opposite of what is meant : Rare in academic writing.
italics
noun slanting typeface used to separate a piece of text from its surroundings for emphasis or to distinguish it for some other purpose (usually contrast)
iteration
noun COUNTABLE the process of repeating something a number of times
iterative
adjective describing something which is repeated a number of times

iterative


process
method
procedure
development
solution
approach
design
scheme
refinement
improvement


jargon
noun UNCOUNTABLE specialised words or phrases used by a particular group (scientists, tradespeople, professional groups etc. ) which may be difficult for those outside of that group to understand
journal
noun COUNTABLE a specialised periodical for those involved in a particular discipline to publish their work
lexis
noun the whole set of words used in any particular language
literature
noun UNCOUNTABLE texts which deal with a particular discipline
literature review
noun a survey of the pertinent writings in a particular discipline often conducted as a part of a dissertation or thesis
manual
noun COUNTABLE a text which provides instruction on the use of a machine or system
manuscript
noun COUNTABLE the original written work submitted for examination or publication
margin
noun COUNTABLE the space between the edge of the page and the text : If you have been given formatting guidelines make sue that you abide by them. If not, use standard formatting rules (e.g. 1 inch margins as stipulated by ASA style)
metalanguage
noun the words and phrases used to describe features of text
metaphor
noun COUNTABLE the use of the name of one concept to describe another : Whereas a simile describes a concept as being like another, a metaphor describes a concept in terms of another. Many commonly used metaphors are almost clichés. For example: "get into hot water”, "split hairs”, "food for thought”.
noun
noun COUNTABLE a word which refers to a "thing”; this "thing” could be an object, a person, a process, a concept, an event
operator
noun COUNTABLE GRAMMAR the first auxiliary verb in a verb phrase : In the sentence "She has not been seen since”, "has” is the operator in the verb phrase "has not been seen”.
outline
noun COUNTABLE a concise description of the main points of an event, plan, process, design, etc. : An outline of an essay or report provides the main points and main supporting details to be discussed in the text.

outline


brief    
broad    
general    
basic    
vague    
rough    
bare    
clear    
historical    
    


outline
verb to describe the main points of an event, plan, process, design, etc.
pagination
noun UNCOUNTABLE the way in which a text is organised into pages
paradox
noun COUNTABLE a statement which seems to be contradictory but which may be insightful
paragraph
noun COUNTABLE a unit of text which usually contains one main idea. : A paragraph may be as short as one sentence but it is usually longer, containing a topic sentence and other sentences which provide supporting detail or evidence. A paragraph always begins on a new line and the first word may be indented.

paragraph


previous    
new    
final    
preceding    
following    
short    
introductory    
single    
concluding    
brief    


parallelism
noun COUNTABLE repetition or mirroring of a style or structure
paraphrase
noun COUNTABLE text rewritten in different words in order to simplify or summarise the original text
paraphrase
verb to rewrite text in different words in order to simplify or summarise the original text
parentheses
noun punctuation marks ( ) used to enclose and separate a short portion of text : Also known as brackets in British English
parody
noun comic imitation achieved through exaggeration
passive
adjective describes a verb when the subject of the sentence is the sufferer of the action rather than the performer : In the sentence, "The dog is being washed by the boy.”, "The dog” is the subject and suffers the action. "is being washed” is a verb in the passive voice. Compare with the active
peer review
noun a review of a text (usually a draft at an advanced stage of preparation) undertaken by people in your peer group : For professionals this means people of similar or higher standing in your discipline; for students it means fellow students in your area of study.
period
noun COUNTABLE AMERICAN USAGE the closing dot at the end of a sentence, also known as a full stop
periodical
noun COUNTABLE a publication which is issued at regular intervals (weekly, monthly, quarterly)
persuasive
adjective making you believe something to be true : It was a compelling and persuasive argument for the urgency of ratifying the treaty. Compare with expository

persuasive


evidence
essay
argument
power
writing
speech
case
communication
manner
techniques


phrase
noun COUNTABLE a phrase is a group of words below the level of a clause. There are 5 types of phrase in English: the noun phrase, the verb phrase, the adverb phrase, the adjective phrase and the prepositional phrase.
preface
noun COUNTABLE an introduction to a long text (usually a book) outlining the purpose and scope of the contents
prefix
noun COUNTABLE a group of letters placed at the beginning of a word which changes the meaning or form of that word : See a list of prefixes and their meanings on the prefix page. See also suffix
primary source
noun phrase a source of information which was an original creation (e.g. a research paper, historical manuscript, or original artifact) See information on primary and secondary sources on the research page
problem/solution
noun a textual element usually at least a paragraph long which examines possible solutions to a particular problem : See how problem/solution is used in a real text on the problem-solution page.
proceedings
noun articles, reviews or reports of discussions, conferences, experiments, surveys … conducted by a professional body
process
noun COUNTABLE a series of steps taken in a given order in order to achieve a particular outcome : Students are sometimes asked to describe a process either to evaluate their understanding of a particular process or to test their ability to write a description involving enumeration. Writing itself is a complex process.

process


continuous    
complex    
educational    
slow    
evolutionary    
historical    
creative    
gradual    
simple    
lengthy    


pronoun
noun COUNTABLE a word which takes the place of a noun which has previously been mentioned in a text : Pronouns (e.g. he, she, they, I, that, who ….) are important for avoiding noun repetition in a text and for creating cohesion.
proofreading
noun the act of reviewing a document carefully in order to locate and correct errors : example of the word or phrase used in context
proposal
noun COUNTABLE a written request, containing a detailed plan, to proceed with a research project

proposal


detailed    
specific    
revised    
alternative    
formal    
serious    
amended    
interesting    
simple    
written    


prose
noun the normal form of language (written or spoken) used from day to day
punctuation
noun UNCOUNTABLE marks which divide phrases, clauses and sentences and provide information about the particular status of a portion of a text (e.g. that it is a question or a quotation)
question mark
noun COUNTABLE a punctuation mark: (?) placed at the end of a sentence to denote that a question is being asked
questionnaire
noun a carefully constructed list of questions written in order to gather information in a systematic and reliable way from a selected group of interviewees
quotation
noun COUNTABLE the actual words written or spoken and reported in a text - a quotation is enclosed in quotation marks (parentheses) and should be normally be accompanied by a citation : See how quotations are formatted on the citation page.
quotation marks
noun punctuation marks (" ") which enclose a quotation to show that these words were written by someone other than the author of the text (although an author may also quote his or her previous work)
quote
noun COUNTABLE the actual words written or spoken and reported in a text - a quote is enclosed in quotation marks (parentheses) and should be normally be accompanied by a citation : See how quotes are formatted on the citation page.
reference
noun COUNTABLE a pointer to an item located at another (usually previous) point in a text : Reference can be backward pointing (anaphoric reference), forward pointing (cataphoric reference), or pointing to something outside of the text (exophoric). See more about reference on the referencing page.
reference
noun a pointer to the source of information, normally formatted in a specific way in order that the reader may locate the source easily : See how to cite on the citation page.
report
noun COUNTABLE a written account of a study, piece of research, survey or experiment, including the methodology used, results obtained, and conclusions reached
research
noun COUNTABLE the process of finding information by conducting experiments, surveys, literature reviews or any other systematic means : See more about researching on the research page.

research


social    
medical    
scientific    
substantive    
historical    
basic    
current    
educational    
empirical    
clinical    


research paper
compound noun a lengthy report giving details of research conducted
rhetoric
noun UNCOUNTABLE speech or writing intended to persuade
rhetorical question
noun phrase COUNTABLE a question which does not require an answer (the answer being obvious, and the question being asked merely to make a particular point)
scan
verb to read though a text quickly looking for specific information
search engine
compound noun COUNTABLE software used for locating specific information on the World Wide Web : See how to search in the research page.
search term
compound noun COUNTABLE the words (and possibly boolean symbols) used to conduct a search using a search engine : See how to search on the research page.
secondary source
noun phrase COUNTABLE a source of information which makes use of, refers to, or comments on other sources (primary or secondary)
sentence
noun COUNTABLE a sentence is a group of words (containing clauses and phrases) beginning with a capital letter and ending in a full stop (period).
sequence
noun COUNTABLE a series of items one after another, usually ordered in a particular way (alphabetically, numerically, chronologically, etc.) : "[respiration] involves a remarkable sequence of processes that beautifully convey the wonder of these biological nanomachines.” (McFadden and Al-Khalili 2016) See how sequence (enumeration) is used in a text on the enumeration page.

sequence


logical    
chronological    
short    
random    
infinite    
correct    
particular    
long    
causal    
alphabetical    


sequence of


events
steps
operations
actions
numbers
images
activities
instructions
words
elements


signal phrase
compound noun COUNTABLE a phrase used to introduce a quotation or a paraphrase : See more about signal phrases on the citation page.
skim
verb to read quickly in order to get a general sense of the main ideas of a text
source
noun COUNTABLE where something came from or originated : Even stable molecules can, however, be ripped apart if they are provided with sufficient energy. One possible source of that energy is more heat, which speeds up molecular motion. (McFadden and Al-Khalili 2016 p71)
I wish to express my thanks also to all those authors and publishers whose works have been quoted. The sources of these quotations have been separately acknowledged in the Notes and Bibliography. (Hoggart, 2009)

source


main    
major    
important    
useful    
valuable    
possible    
reliable    
potential    
primary    
authoritative    


style
noun COUNTABLE a mode of presentation either in terms of formatting or in terms of how language is used to communicate your ideas
style guide
compound noun COUNTABLE a guide for writers outlining required or suggested conventions to be followed (in terms of formatting, language use, referencing, etc.) when writing for a particular journal or institution
subject 1.
noun COUNTABLE GRAMMAR a noun phrase (a person or a thing) normally placed before a verb phrase and which acts as the performer of the verb
subject 2.
noun COUNTABLE an area of study in a school, college or university
substitution
noun COHESIVE DEVICE the replacement of one item with another : See more about substitution on the substitution page.
suffix
noun COUNTABLE a group of letters placed at the end of a word which changes the meaning or grammatical form of that word : See a list of suffixes on the suffixes page. See also prefix
summarise
verb to write a reduced version of a text containing only the most essential points
summary
noun COUNTABLE a reduced version of a text containing only the most essential points

summary


brief    
short    
concise    
detailed    
excellent    
quick    
accurate    
final    
simple    
general    


survey
noun COUNTABLE a systematic method of gathering and evaluating information
synonym
noun COUNTABLE a word which has the same meaning and use as another : True synonyms are rare because words with similar meanings are usually used in slightly different contexts and may have different collocations.
synthesis
noun COUNTABLE the combination of separate entities to form a new coherent unit
tautology
noun COUNTABLE using different words to say the same thing twice
text
noun COUNTABLE words written or spoken for a particular audience and a particular purpose : Anything containing words in which meaning can be found can be a text. A text can be any length, from a one word warning sign to a lengthy book.

text


literary    
original    
main    
final    
written    
plain    
introductory    
authoritative    
descriptive    
    


theme
noun COUNTABLE 1. the main idea of a text; 2. the main focus of meaning in a sentence
theorise
noun to construct a coherent set of ideas, principles rules or conventions concerning a particular area of study which help in understanding and explaining it
theory
noun a coherent set of ideas, principles rules or conventions concerning a particular area of study which help in understanding and explaining it

theory


general    
political    
economic    
classical    
evolutionary    
literary    
quantum    
game    
traditional    
    


thesaurus
noun a book which supplies lists of synonyms, antonyms and words with similar or related meaning : The most famous thesaurus, by Peter Mark Roget, was first published in 1852. It remains a useful reference source. You can view or download the original text here. There is also a useful site here.
thesis
noun COUNTABLE 1. the topic of an essay or report, often including the writer’s opinion on the topic; 2. an extended piece of writing on a researched topic intended for discussion or presented for examination: 3. an idea or proposal put forward for discussion and defence
title
noun COUNTABLE the name (often descriptive) of a piece of writing
tone
noun UNCOUNTABLE the stance or emotional charge of the speaker or writer : In speaking, tone is signalled both by the quality of the speaker’s voice and the choice of words; in writing tone is carried only by writer’s choice of words and perhaps grammatical structures. In social media exchanges it may be signalled by the use of capital letters, exaggerated use of punctuation and the use of non lexical signs such as emojis. None of this has any place in academic communication, which should always be measured and straightforward.
topic
noun COUNTABLE the subject matter of a paragraph, section, essay, report, etc.

topic


particular    
main    
new    
important    
major    
specific    
given    
chosen    
hot    
    


topic sentence
compound noun a sentence which provides the controlling idea (the subject matter) of a paragraph, section, or an entire piece of writing : You can see how a topic sentence is used on the main idea page.
transition
noun COUNTABLE a change from one topic to another : Transition adverbials (such as "now”, "meanwhile”, "incidentally”) are sometimes used to signal transition from one topic to another. See how transition is managed on the adverbials page.
transitive
adjective describing a clause in which the verb requires an object
typo
noun a typographical error
usage
noun the way language is normally written or spoken by a particular community

usage


common    
current    
everyday    
modern    
normal    
ordinary    
popular    
technical    
scientific    
    


verb
noun COUNTABLE a word used to describe actions, states or events - verb phrases are essential parts of almost all English clauses
volume
noun COUNTABLE 1. a set of issues of a journal; 2. one book in a set